Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations in herring muscle and Guillemot egg
Key messageThe concentration of HBCDD in Guillemot egg show a significant increase of about 3% per year since 1969. On the contrary a decreasing trend is indicated for HBCDD in herring muscle from the same area during the last decade. No trends can be found at the other monitored localities.
Figure 1. Spatial variation in mean concentration (2007-2009 in ng/g lipid weight) of HBCDD in herring muscle. The highest concentration (around 25 ng/g ) was found in the southern Baltic Proper (Hanöbukten), the lowest (around 2 ng/g) in Skagerrakk (Väderöarna). Some of the sampling sites have only been analysed for two years this far. Data originates from the Swedish national monitoring programme and are analysed at the Department of Applied Environmental Science, University of Stockholm
Results and assessments
Relevance of the indicator for describing developments in the environmentAnalyses of contaminants in biotic samples, in contrast to abiotic matrices, exhibit the bioavailable part of the contaminants. The lipid content of both herring muscle tissue and guillemot eggs is high, about 2-4% and 11-13% respectively, and thus very appropriate for analysis of fat-soluble contaminants as HBCDD. Herring are commonly used for human consumption.
Policy relevance and policy referencesHBCDD is still in use but EU, but HBCDD is listed on REACHs Candidate list and Authorisation list for substances regarded as SVHC (substances of very high concern).
HBCDD is under review by the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) as a proposed substance to be listed under the Stockholm Convention
HBCDD is only produced at one industrial unit within the EU. The Swedish import of HBCDD has decreased from about 120 to 0 tonnes per year during the time period 1997-2009.
AssessmentThe concentrations of HBCDD in Guillemot eggs show a significant increase of about 3% per year whereas HBCDD in herring muscle from the same area indicate a decreasing trend (around 8 % per year) during the monitored time period, 1999-2009. No trend can be seen at the other localities. The map indicates elevated concentrations in the Baltic Proper compared to the Gulf of Bothnia and the Swedish west coast. The highest concentration (around 25 ng/g ) was found at Hanöbukten in the southern Baltic Proper, the lowest (around 2 ng/g) in Skagerrakk (Väderöarna).
Figure 2. Temporal trends of HBCDD concentration (ng/g lipid weight) in herring muscle from four different sampling sites in the Baltic Sea (1999-2009). Harufjärden (Bothnian Bay), Ängskärsklubb (S. Bothnian Sea), Landsort (N. Baltic Proper), Utlängan (S. Baltic Proper). The red dotted line presented in one of the figures is based on a log-linear regression analyses indicate a decreasing trend of about 8% per year (0.05< p <0.1). The horizontal line is the mean concentration of the analysed period.
Figure 3. Temporal trend of HBCDD concentration (ng/g lipid weight) in guillemot egg (1969-2009) from St. Karlsö (S. Baltic Proper). The red line presented in the figure is based on a log-linear regression analysis and shows an increasing trend of 3% per year and the blue line is a simple 3-point running mean smoother fitted to the annual geometric mean values. The horizontal line is the mean concentration over the whole period. A red cross represents a suspected outlier.
Bignert, A., Berger, U., Boalt, E., Borg, H., Danielsson S., Eriksson, U., Haglund, P., Hedman, J., Holm, K., Johansson, A-K., Miller, A., Nyberg, E., Nylund, K..2011. Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota. Report to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2011. 224 pp.
KemI (2006). Hexabromocyklododekan (HBCDD) och tetrabrombisfenol - A (TBBPA). Rapport 3/06.
Trend (in %) assessed from the annual geometric mean of concentrations of HBCDD (ng/g lipid weight) in various matrices and sites during the time period 1969/99-2009 and the estimated mean concentration for the last year (2009). The trend is reported, if p<0.1. The age interval, the total number of analyses and the number of years are also presented. The numbers presented in brackets are the 95% confidence intervals.
|Matrix||age||n analyses||n yrs||year||trend (95% ci)||mean concentration of last year (95% ci)|
|Utlängan||3-4||1331||11||1999-2009||-8.3(-17,0.33)||10 (6.0- 17)|
|St. Karlsö||217||36||1969-2009||2.7(1.7, 3.7)*||170 (140, 210)|
* significant trend, p < 0.05
Data source: National Swedish Monitoring Programme of Contaminants in Biota
Sampling, sample preparation, storage in specimen bank and evaluation of results are carried out by the Department of Contaminant Research at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. Chemical Analysis is carried out at Institute of Applied Environmental Research at Stockholm University.
Geographical coverage: see data table and map.
Temporal coverage: see data table and figures.
Methodology and frequency of data collection, see Bignert et al, 2011.
Methodology of data manipulation. For a detailed description of statistical methods use, see Bignert et al. 2011.
The number of years required to detect an annual change of 10 % with a power of 80% varied between 10 to 15 years for the herring time-series. The number of years required to detect an annual change of 10 % was 12 years for the whole guillemot egg time-series and 9 years for the last ten years.
For reference purposes, please cite this Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets as follows:
[Author’s name(s)], [Year]. [Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets title]. HELCOM Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets 2011. Online. [Date Viewed], http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/en_GB/cover/.
Last updated: 21 September 2011