OSPAR is the mechanism by which fifteen Governments of the western
coasts and catchments of Europe, together with the European Union,
cooperate to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic.
It started in 1972 with the Oslo Convention against dumping. It was
broadened to cover land-based sources and the offshore industry by the
Paris Convention of 1974. These two conventions were unified, updated
and extended by the 1992 OSPAR Convention. The new annex on biodiversity
and ecosystems was adopted in 1998 to cover non-polluting human
activities that can adversely affect the sea.