Monitoring programme: Contaminants
Programme topic: Concentration of contaminants

Sub-programme: Contaminants in sediment


 

​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts table

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


 

Regional coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated

There is no current plan for coordinated monitoring of contaminants in sediments, other than radionuclides. Under the Water Framework Directive, no EQS values have so far been set in sediments. However, countries are encouraged to perform long term trend analysis of concentrations of persistent substances that tend to accumulate in sediment, in order to ensure that such concentrations do not significantly increase (such as Hg, PAHs, HCHs, HCB, PBDE,  TBT,  PCB, PFOS, PCDD/F, HBCDD). 


Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments ​Hazardous substances
​Ecological objectives

​​Concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels
Radioactivity at pre-Chernobyl level

Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​​D8 Contaminants
​Criteria (Q5a)
​8.1 Concentration of contaminants
​Features (Q5c)

Other features:
A description of the situation with regard to chemicals, including chemicals giving rise to concern, sediment contamination, hotspots, health issues and contamination of biota (especially biota meant for human consumption)

Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
​Water Framework Directive


 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends,
spatial distribution,

status classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures

Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea X
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin X
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division


Monitoring concepts table 

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
Regional (COMBINE) PCBs Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate HELCOM COMBINE Manual, Part D. ISO/IEC 17025 and other guidelines (see References)
HELCOM COMBINE manual , ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME
Other See map for details
8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix
EEZ DE: 2000, 2008

DK: 1999 with some interuptions in the mid 2000's

SE: 2000, infrequently through the 2000's

PL: 1998
DE, DK, PL, SE
​Regional (COMBINE) ​PAH ​Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate HELCOM COMBINE Manual, Part D. ISO/IEC 17025 and other guidelines (see References) HELCOM COMBINE manual Annex B13, Appendix 1 and 2, ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME Other, LT: 1 time per year (summer)
See map for details​ ​8.1.1 ​EEZ, Terittorial waters, Transitional waters
​LT: 2007
​DE, DK, LT, PL, SE
Regional (COMBINE) tributyltin (TBT)
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate HELCOM COMBINE Manual, Part D. ISO/IEC 17025 and other guidelines (see References)
HELCOM COMBINE manual, ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME Other See map for details

8.1.1
EEZ
DE: 2000, 2004, 2008

DK: 1999 with a few gaps

LT: 2011

LV: 2011

SE: 2000 - 2004, 2008

DE, DK, FI, LT, LV, SE​​


Regional (COMBINE) Metals
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate HELCOM COMBINE Manual, Part D. ISO/IEC 17025 and other guidelines (see References)
HELCOM COMBINE manual Part B, Annex B13, Appendix 3 and 4, ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME Other
See map for details

8.1.1
EEZ
DE: 2000

DK: 1999

LT: 2007, data also from 2004

LV: 2007, data also from 2004

SE: 2000

DE, DK, LT, LV, SE​​


National Furans
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate Different approaches e.g. CEMP manual, ICES guidelines, ISO/CEN standards (see References) Other Other

8.1.1 EEZ DK: 2007
 DK
​Other Hg, Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co ​Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate ISO 5667-15, ISO/IEC 17025, ISO 5667-19 and ISO 5667-12 ISO/IEC 17025 ​One-off ​Stations in the Gulf of Finland ​8.1.1 ​EEZ ​2014 ​EE
Regional
(MORS)
Radionuclides: Gamma-emitters Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in/on seabed substrate MORS Guidelines MORS Guidelines Yearly
See map for details

8.1.1
EEZ
1984
All HELCOM Contracting Parties


​​


 

Brief description of monitoring

Full description in HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


​Element / parameter
PCBs / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in/on seabed substrate
​Method Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively in the data. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC ​​Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. See HELCOM COMBINE manual. ​
Frequency Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.

DE:
  • BSH: May/Jun, annually
  • IOW: Jun/Jul, annually
  • LLUR: Jul/Aug, every 2nd year
  • LUNG: Jul/Aug/Sep, every 3rd year
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution Measured in the following HELCOM sub basins: Kiel Bay, Kattegat, Southern Baltic Proper, The Sound, Great Belt, Bay of Mecklenburg and Little Belt.

See map for details



​Element / parameter
TBT / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in/on seabed substrate
​Method Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively in the data. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC ​​Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. See HELCOM COMBINE manual. ​
Frequency Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment.
Bothnian Sea, Gulf of Finland.
Spatial resolution

Measured in: Kiel Bay, Kattegat, Southern Baltic Proper, Great Belt, Bay of Mecklenburg, Little Belt, The Sound.

See map for details




​Element / parameter
Metals / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in/on seabed substrate
​Method Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively in the data. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC ​​Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. See HELCOM COMBINE manual - Part B, Annex B13, Appendix 3 and 4,
Frequency Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.

DE:
  • BSH: Mar, annually
  • IOW: Jun/Jul, annually
  • LLUR: Jul/Aug, every 2nd year
  • LUNG: Jul/Aug/Sep, every 3rd year
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution

Measured in: Bay of Mecklenburg, Southern Baltic Proper, Kiel Bay, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt.

See map for details




​Element / parameter
Other contaminants / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in/on seabed substrate
​Method Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively in the data. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC ​​Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. See HELCOM COMBINE manual. ​
Frequency Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution

All other contaminants in sediment are measured in:  Kiel Bay, Kattegat, Southern Baltic Proper, The Sound, Great Belt, Bay of Mecklenburg, Little Belt.
For CEMP: furans are monitored in: Kattegat and Skagerrak, TBT only in Kattegatt.

National monitoring is only reported for Denmark and Germany, of which furans are monitored in Great Belt, Kiel Bay, Little Belt.

TBT is measured in Bay of Mecklenburg, Kiel Bay, Little Belt, Great Belt. Metals are reported from Great Belt Kiel Bay Bay of Mecklenburg Little Belt.

All the remaining national contaminants data is reported from Great Belt, Kiel Bay, Bay of Mecklenburg and Little Belt.




​Element / parameter
Radionuclides / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in/on seabed substrate
​Method

Obligatory radionuclides: Gamma-emitters: K-40, Cs-137 and other γ-emitters identified in the γ-spectrum.  

Voluntary radionuclides: Sr-90; Pu-239, 240; Am-241; natural radionuclides (e.g. Po-210).


Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively in the data. See MORS Guidelines.
QA/QC Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. MORS Guidelines defines methodologies for sample treatment, analysis and intercomparison. Reported data is manually quality assured by HELCOM secretariat and results reported and verified in annual MORS EG meeting.
Frequency Annual
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution See map for details



assessment requirements

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements
​Core indicators rely primarily on monitoring data from biota, secondarily from sediments and lastly from water.  Under the Water Framework Directive, no EQS values have so far been set in sediments. However, countries are encouraged to perform long term trend analysis of concentrations of persistent substances that tend to accumulate in sediment, in order to ensure that such concentrations do not significantly increase (such as Hg, PAHs, HCHs, HCB, PBDE,  TBT,  PCB, PFOS, PCDD/F, HBCDD).  To this end, sediments are suitable for revealing past recent history of contaminants.
Gaps Assessment of gaps has not been carried out.


 

Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​
Adequate for determination of state but not for temporal changes.
Established methods for assessment?
​Yes
​Adequate understanding of GES?
​​Yes, thresholds are available for many substances.
Adequate capacity to perform assessments?
Nationally


 

Assessment of natural variability (Q5e) 

-


 


 

Data providers and access

Data access point
Contaminants: ICES DOME
Radioactive substances: HELCOM MORS
Data type (Q10c)
Processed Data sets​
Data availability (Q10c)​

Contaminants: ICES database
Radioactive substances: ​HELCOM MORS

​Data access (Q10c)
Open access​
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)

When will data become available? (Q10c)
Contaminants: Annually
Radioactive substances: Annually​
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Yearly
Describe how the data and information from the programme will be made accessible to the EC/EEA
​​Contact points in the Contracting parties

​Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added

​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
​Yes, e.g. BSEP120B Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea.


 

References

HELCOM COMBINE Manual

Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Guidance Document No. 25. European Commission 2010. Guidance on chemical monitoring of sediment and bioa under the Water Framework Directive, Technical Report 2010.3991. ISBN 978-92-79-16224-4.

DIN EN ISO 5667-15, 2009. Water quality -- Sampling -- Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples

DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025, 2005: General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

IOC Manual of Quality control Procedures

ISO 5667-19, 2004: Water quality -- Sampling -- Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

ISO 5667-12: Water quality -- Sampling -- Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments

ISO 13877:1998

MORS Guidelines

QUASIMEME