Monitoring programme: Contaminants
Programme topic: Concentration of contaminants

Sub-programme: Contaminants in water


​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts table

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


regional coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated.

There is no current plan for coordinated monitoring of contaminants in water, other than radionucleides, unless national EQS are established for another matrix.  


Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments ​Hazardous substances
​Ecological objectives

​​Concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels
Radioactivity at pre-Chernobyl level

Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​​D8 Contaminants
​Criteria (Q5a)
​8.1 Concentration of contaminants
​Features (Q5c)

Other features:
A description of the situation with regard to chemicals, including chemicals giving rise to concern, sediment contamination, hotspots, health issues and contamination of biota (especially biota meant for human consumption)

Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
​Water Framework Directive


 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends,
spatial distribution,

status classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures

Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea X
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin X
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division

Monitoring concepts table

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
Regional
(COMBINE)
PCB

Concentration of chemical/nutrient/​pollutant in water column

HELCOM COMBINE
manual, PartD and different approaches e.g. CEMP manual, ICES guidelines, ISO/CEN standards (see References)

HELCOM COMBINE manual  Part B, Annex B12, Appendix 1ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME
Other. See "Brief description of monitoring"
See map for details

8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix EEZ DE: 2005 (also data from 1998)
LT: 2010
LV: 2010 (data also from 1998 and 2005)
 DE, LT, LV
​Regional
(COMBINE)
​PAH ​Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column HELCOM COMBINE
manual, PartD and different approaches e.g. CEMP manual, ICES guidelines, ISO/CEN standards (see References)
HELCOM COMBINE manual Annex B11, Appendix 1 and 2, ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME LT 1 time per year (summer); from 2011 4 times per year (1 time per season)
See map for details

EE: few places close to WWTP outfalls
8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix ​Coastal Waters, Terittorial waters, Transitional waters EEZ ​LT: 2007
​EE, LT
Regional
(COMBINE)
Metals
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column HELCOM COMBINE
manual, PartD and different approaches e.g. CEMP manual, ICES guidelines, ISO/CEN standards (see References)
HELCOM COMBINE manual Annex B11, Appendix 1 and 2, ISO/CEN standards and QUASIMEME Other. See "Brief description of monitoring" See map for details 8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix EEZ DE: 2005 (also data from 1998)
FI: 1979
LT: 2007
LV: 2005 (data also from 1998)
SE: 2005 (data also from 1998)
DE, FI, LT, LV, SE
National PBDE
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column Different approaches e.g. CEMP manual, ICES guidelines, ISO/CEN standards (see References) Other Other

8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix EEZ DE: 2011
 DE
​Other Harmful and priority substances ​Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column ISO 5667-3 ISO 5667-9, ISO TS 13530, ISO 11352, DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 As needed WWTP outfalls 8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix Coastal sea
​2014 ​EE
Regional
(MORS)
Radionuclides: Radiocesium and Sr-90 Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column MORS Guidelines MORS Guidelines Yearly See map for details​ Radioactive substances: Cs-137 in fish and surface waters 8.1.1 Concentration of the contaminants measured in the relevant matrix EEZ 1984 All HELCOM Contracting Parties



Brief description of monitoring

Full description in HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


​Element / parameter
All contaminants / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in water column
​Method All contaminants listed are measured in the water column.
Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
Finland monitors oil concentration in water in offshore stations in all the sub-basins yearly. The monitoring started in 1979.
QA/QC ​​See Part B Annex B11 of HELCOM COMBINE manual
Frequency Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution See map for details​



​Element / parameter
PCB / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in water column
​Method All contaminants listed are measured in the water column.
Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively. See HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC ​​See Part B Annex B11 of HELCOM COMBINE manual. ​
Frequency

​Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.

DE: regular sampling through:

  • BSH: May/June, Aug/Sept and Oct/Nov, annually

  • IOW: Jan/Feb and Jul/Aug, annually

  • LLUR: Jan/Feb and Jul/Aug, annually

Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are measured in the Bay of Mecklenburg, Kiel Bay and Southern Baltic Proper.

​​​




​Element / parameter
Metals / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in water column
​Method All contaminants listed here are measured in the water column.
Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively. See HELCOM COMBINE manual
QA/QC ​​See Part B Annex B11 of  HELCOM COMBINE manual. ​
Frequency

​Varies from 1-2 to 24 samples/station/year, depending on country.

DE: regular sampling for metals as specified in the measuring programme:

  • BSH: Jan/Feb, Mar, Aug/Sep and Oct/Nov, annually

  • LLUR: Jan/Feb and Jul/Aug, annually


Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution See map for details​
Metals are measured in the Southern Baltic Proper, Bay of Mecklenburg, Kiel Bay, Bothnian Bay, the Quark, Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea, Åland Sea, Northern Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland.




Element / parameter
Radionuclides / Concentration of chemical/pollutant in water column
​Method

Obligatory radionuclides: Radiocesium: Cs-137 and Cs-134, if possible. Sr-90.  

Voluntary radionuclides: H-3; Tc-99; Pu-239, 240; Am-241; natural radionuclides (e.g. Po-210)


Sampling and analytical methods are reported per sample and per parameter respectively. See MORS Guidelines.
QA/QC Quality assurance is a laboratory's whole sampling and analytical process from start to finish. MORS Guidelines define methodologies for sample treatment, analysis and intercomparison. Reported data is manually quality assured by HELCOM secretariat and results reported and verified in annual MORS EG meeting.
Frequency Annual.
DE: season: Aug/Sep and Jun/Jul
Spatial Scope EEZ / Whole Baltic Sea for assessment
Spatial resolution See map for details​



assessment requirements

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements
Core indicators are primarily based on monitoring samples from biota, secondarily from sediments and lastly from water.
​Gaps Assessment of gaps has not been carried out.


Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information to enable periodic assessments of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​
Yes for determination of state. No for temporal changes.
Established methods for assessment?
​Yes
​Adequate understanding of GES?
​​Yes for metals i.e. EQS for metals in water.
Adequate capacity to perform assessments?
Nationally


 

Assessment of natural variability (Q5e) 

-


 


 

Data providers and access

Data access point
Contaminants: ICES DOME
Radioactive substances: HELCOM MORS

Data type (Q10c)
Processed Data sets​
Data availability (Q10c)​

Contaminants: ICES DOME
Radioactive substances: HELCOM MORS

​Data access (Q10c)
Open access​
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)

When will data become available? (Q10c)
Contaminants: Annually
Radioactive substances: Annually​
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Yearly
Describe how the data and information from the programme will be made accessible to the EC/EEA
​​Contact points in the Contracting parties

​Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added

​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
​Yes, e.g. BSEP120B Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea.


 

References

Common implementation strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Guidance Document No. 19. European Commission 2010. Guidance on surface water chemical monitoring under the Water Framework Directive. Luxemburg: office for Official Publications of the European Communities

Determination of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sediment and biota. ICES TIMES No. 44 (2

Determination of parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biota andsediment. ICES TIMES No. 45 (2009)

Determination of perfluoroalkyl compounds in water, sediment, and biota – ICES TIMES No. 48 (2010)

Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and biota. ICES TIMES No. 46 (2009)

DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025

DIN EN ISO5667-3, 2004-05

ISO TS 13530, ISO 11352

ISO 5667-9, 1992-10

JAMP Guidelines for the analysis of PFCs in water

LST EN ISO 17993:2004

MORS Guidelines

QUASIMEME

Technical guidance on monitoring for the MSFD