Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Fish
Programme topic: ​Fish, shellfish and fisheries

Sub-programme: COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH

 

​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts table

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


REgional Coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated. Monitoring of bivalve populations is not coordinated Baltic wide. Nephrops are monitored through ICES under the ICES Study Group on Nephrops Surveys (SGNEPS) and the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK).

  • Common monitoring guidelines: ICES

  • Common quality assurance programme: ICES

  • Common database: missing, national databases exist


Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments ​Biodiversity
​Ecological objectives ​​Viable populations of species
Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​D1 Biodiversity
D3 Commercial fish and shellfish
D4 Food webs
​Criteria (Q5a)
1.1 Species distribution
​1.2 Population size
1.3 Population condition
3.1 Level of pressure of the fishing activity
3.2 Reproductive capacity of the stock
3.3 Population age and size distribution
​Features (Q5c)

Biological features:
Information on angiosperms, macro-algae and invertebrate bottom fauna, including species composition, biomass and annual/seasonal variability.

Activities (Q7a, 7b)

​Extraction of living resources: Fisheries

​Other legislation (Q8a)
​Common Fisheries Policy (DCF)


 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends,
spatial distribution,

status classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures
X
Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division

Other


Monitoring concepts table

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
ICES
Nephrops burrow density Population size (abundance) ICES coordinated Nephrops underwater TV surveys

ICES groups: WGNSSK and SGNEPS

Yearly Stratified station survey design
1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.2.1, 1.3.1,3.1.1, 3.2.1
EEZ 2008 (2010 full series)  DK, SE
National Shellfish assessment Population size (biomass) Danish Blue mussel and oyster survey Other Yearly Limfjord stratified fixed sampling
1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.2.1, 1.3.1,3.1.1, 3.2.1 Territorial waters 1993  DK
National Shellfish assessment Population size (biomass) Danish Blue mussel survey National Yearly Little Belt stratified fixed sampling
1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.2.1, 1.3.1,3.1.1, 3.2.1 Territorial waters 2008  DK
ICES Population dynamics Nephrops Population size (abundance) ICES stock assessment Other Yearly ICES FU3 and FU4 (joint assessment Skagerrak and Kattegat)
1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.2.1, 1.3.1,3.1.1, 3.2.1 EEZ 1990 DK
ICES
Commercial landings of Nephrops catch Composition and number of retained/landed catch ICES PGCCDBS approach to commercial sampling Other Monthly Sampling metiers of the fishing fleet
3.1.1 Fishing mortality, 3.2.1 Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)
EEZ 1991 SE, DK


 


Brief description of monitoring

Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


​Element / parameter
Nephrops/Population abundance, biomass and distribution
​Method Nephrops are monitored through underwater TV surveys, measuring the landings and discards and this is synthesised together using a stock assessment. Nephrops in the Kattegat is assessed and surveyed jointly with Nephrops in the Skagerrak (what ICES denote as functional units 3 and 4 (FU)). The Danish surveys for blue mussels and oysters occur in Limfjord and the Little Belt. These annual surveys measure abundance, distribution and density of shellfish.

Research vessels are used to carry out the underwater TV surveys for Nephrops. The TV camera is attached to a sledge and the density of the burrows in enumerated. The sampling design is stratified relative to know population variability.
QA/QC ​The Nephrops surveys are carried out using described ICES protocols (under ICES groups: WGNSSK and SGNEPS) which have been peer reviewed.
Frequency

All surveys, assessment and monitoring are annual.

Spatial Scope

Function Units (FU 3 and 4) in the Kattegat and Skagerrak.

Spatial resolution Nephrops- Kattegat (mostly eastern side)


 

​Element / parameter
Blue mussels and oysters/Population abundance, biomass and distribution
​Method ​The Danish surveys for blue mussels and oysters occur in Limfjord and the Little Belt. These annual surveys measure abundance, distribution and density of shellfish. The mussel and oyster surveys are carried out using international norms for bivalve sampling. 
QA/QC National
Frequency

All surveys, assessment and monitoring are annual.

Spatial Scope

For mussels and oysters the scope are the entire Limfjord and Lesser Belt area.

Spatial resolution Mussels – Great Belt (20% as Little Belt only surveyed).


 

assessmenT REQUIREMENTS

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements
Monitoring of population state and fishing pressure on bivalves are carried out through local national projects. These are not coordinated Baltic Sea wide. The Nephrops populations and fishery are monitored through an ICES coordinated programme.
​Gaps There is no central database for shellfish populations in the Baltic Sea. There is no central coordination of monitoring of bivalve populations. Outside Denmark and Sweden, there are no other surveys of shellfish.
There is a need for databases and coordination under D3.


 


Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​
​No
Established methods for assessment?
​No
​Adequate understanding of GES?
​No
Adequate capacity to perform assessments?
​No


 


Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)

If shellfish need to be considered within the Baltic Sea area, there is little coordinated monitoring on any species other than Nephrops.


Data providers and access

​Data access point
National databases held at institutes
Data type (Q10c)
Unprocessed/raw data
Processed datasets
Modelled data
Data availability (Q10c)​
By request
​Data access (Q10c)
Open access – Nephrops stock assessment outputs
Restricted by specific licence  – sampling data on surveys covered by CFP- DCF
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)
Species distribution
When will data become available? (Q10c)
No agreement on data access
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Yearly
Describe how the data and information from the programme
will be made accessible to the EC/EEA

Unclear

​​Contact points in the Contracting parties

​Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added.

​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
​No


 

REFERENCES

ICES Study Group on Nephrops Surveys (SGNEPS)

Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK)