Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - FishProgramme topic: Fish, shellfish and fisheries
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated. The sub-programme is partly coordinated within
ICES WGBAST. Missing: sea trout parr densities and most of eel monitoring.
Common monitoring guidelines: Monitoring is coordinated under
Assessment Working Group on Baltic Salmon and Trout and
Joint EIFAAC/ICES Working Group on Eels.
Common quality assurance programme:
There are no centralised databases in ICES that cover data for baltic salmon and trout, other than the ground fish trawl surveys. A common, coordinated analysis of database is made under
ICES by the
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute.
Habitat types:Identification and mapping of special habitat types, especially those recognised or identified under Community legislation (the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive) or international conventions as being of special scientific or biodiversity interest.Biological features:Information on the structure of fish populations, including the abundance, distribution and age/size structure of the populations
Activities (Q7a, 7b)
Extraction of living resources: Fisheries
Other: Salmon assessment units/river specific
Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.
The frequency varies, with some series stopping and then starting again. Varieties of rivers can be monitored each year. The salmon index rivers should be monitored annually.
Sea trout and salmon don't occur parallel in all rivers, selection of index rivers need to be considered separately for salmon and sea trout.
Monitoring for salmon is carried out by assessment unit.
Region specific / River specific.
Assessment is river specific, results can be summed up by coastal area or sub basin.
Most monitoring for eel is carried out in Sweden.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
The current management regime requires an evaluation of the status of individual salmon stocks. This implies that stock-specific information needs to be collected from all salmon rivers; currently there are about 40 spawning rivers of salmon in the Baltic Sea (and 16 rivers in Kattegat). The regime has a high priority to establish at least one index river in each Assessment Unit (AU) of Baltic salmon.
Data from an index river consists of monitoring of salmon spawning runs and their composition, smolt runs, river catches and parr densities. Monitoring in all non-index salmon rivers should be arranged so that each juvenile cohort is sampled at least once before smoltification. Electrofishing surveys in non-index salmon rivers are of high priority but it is not necessary to have annual surveys in every river. Periodic smolt trapping in non-index rivers and monitoring of the M74 mortality in a subset of rivers supplement assessment by improving the accuracy of stock estimates.
Updating any information relevant to the migration and/or reproduction possibilities of salmon in rivers (e.g., changes in migration obstacles, restoration of river habitat, measures affecting water quality and/or flow regimes) is also needed.
Assessment requirements concerning monitoring at sea covers: fishing effort and catches (incl. discarding and estimates of unreporting), catch sampling from which the stock composition and the origin (wild/hatchery-reared) is analysed. These data are needed on fleet basis (offshore/coastal fishing by gear type). Also catch data on recreational fisheries at sea and in rivers is necessary and used in the salmon assessment.
Monitoring requirements concerning sea trout are very similar to those of salmon. However, the current trout assessment does not require as broad range of datasets as is required for salmon assessment. The datasets of highest priority are: parr densities and inventories of river habitat. Establishment of index rivers similar to salmon index rivers is highly recommended. This would enable supplementing of parr density information with counts of trout smolts and ascending spawners in a part of rivers. Catches, tag recaptures from fisheries, and information about fishing pressure and fishing pattern (gear and mesh sizes used) are also required for in-depth assessment of sea trout stocks.
There is no such thing as Baltic eel. Eel is pan-European, so the monitoring programmes must be European wide.
Adequacy for assessment of GES
Monitoring should provide adequate data and information to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.
Assessment of natural variability
Quantitative and by expert opinion. Natural variation is quantified by analytical assessment tools (life cycle models for salmon and other statistical analyses methods for sea trout) and the results are complemented by expert opinions, trend analyses etc.
Provide location of data in national data centre: Modelled data available in the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute.Provide location of data in international data centre (e.g. RSC, ICES, EEA, EMODnet): Catch sampling data of salmon available in the ICES Regional database.
Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added
Stock assessment of Gulf of Finland Salmon
Stock assessment of salmon in Baltic main basin and Gulf of Bothnia
Monitoring of smolts and migrating adults: Annex of the
Study group on data requirements and assessment needs for Baltic Sea trout (SGBALANST)
Report of the Joint EIFAAC/ICES Working Group on Eels (WGEEL)
Electrofishing method manual: Bohlin T, S Hamrin, T G Heggberget, G Rasmussen & S Jakob Saltveit (1989) Electrofishing — Theory and practice with special emphasis on salmonids. Hydrobiologia 173: 9-43.