Monitoring programme: Eutrophication, Biodiversity - Water column habitats​
Programme topic: ​​Hydrochemistry

SUB-PROGRAMME: WATER COLUMN CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS


 

​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


 

Regional Coordination 

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: Fully coordinated for and H2 S and O2. Not coordinated for pCO2


Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments Eutrophication
​Biodiversity
​Ecological objectives ​​Natural oxygen levels
Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​D1 Biodiversity – Seabed habitats
D1 Biodiversity – Water column habitats
D5 Eutrophication
D7 Hydrographical changes
​Criteria (Q5a)
1.6 Habitat condition
5.3 Indirect effects of nutrient enrichment
7.2 Impact of permanent hydrographical changes
​Features (Q5c)
Physical and chemical features:
Annual and seasonal temperature regime and ice cover, current velocity, upwelling, wave exposure, mixing characteristics, turbidity, residence time.
Spatial and temporal distribution of nutrients (DIN, TN, DIP, TP, TOC) and oxygen.
pH, pCO2 profiles or equivalent information used to measure marine acidification.
Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
​Water Framework Directive


 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends,
spatial distribution,

status classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures
Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea X
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division


Monitoring concepts

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
Regional (COMBINE) Dissolved oxygen (O2) Concentration of oxygen In situ measurement (HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part C, Annex C2, Chapter 4.3) HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B, Annex B2, B3, B4, B5, B6 and Annex B8 Appendix 2 and 3
See map for details Station grid sampling, high frequency cruise sampling. See map for details.​  Deep bottom oxygen debt ​5.3.2 EEZ Data available from 1891, coordinated monitoring started 1979 All HELCOM Contracting Parties
Regional (COMBINE) Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) pH Sampled in conjunction with O2 (see HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B, Annex B14 and Annex C5) HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B, Annex B14
See map for details
Station grid sampling, high frequency cruise sampling. See map for details​ - ​- EEZ Data available from 1921, coordinated monitoring started 1979 All HELCOM Contracting Parties
​Regional (COMBINE) ​Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) ​Other parameter ​Sampled in conjunction with O2 (see HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part C, Annex C2, Chapter 4.4 and Annex C5) HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B8, Appendix 4 See map for details
​Station grid sampling, high frequency cruise sampling. See map for details​ ​- ​- ​EEZ ​Data available from 1966, coordinated monitoring started 1979 All HELCOM Contracting Parties
National
Carbon dioxide (pCO2)
Concentration of chemical/nutrient/pollutant in water column
Ship of opportunity
Other
Monthly 24 stations
-
​- EEZ
1992
FI


 


Brief description of monitoring

Full description in HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


 

​Element / parameter
O2 / Concentration of oxygen
​Method Measured in the water column, see HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC

The quality system is formalized in the quality manual (Part B Annex B2 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual). Guidance on the interpretation of ISO/IEC/EN 17025 'General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories' (formerly EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25) was given by a joint international EURACHEM/WELAC Working Group (EURACHEM/WELAC, 1992). Specific guidance to Analytical Quality Control for Water Analysis was elaborated by European - CEN/TC 230 (EN 14996) - as well as by international - ISO/TC 147 SC 7 (ISO/TR 13530) - standardisation authorities.

The analytical requirements are specified, including definition of the type and nature of the sample and its environment, concentration range of interest and permissible tolerances in analytical error (Part B Annex B3 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).

It has been established, by laboratory studies, that the performance characteristics (selectivity, sensitivity, range, limit of detection and accuracy) of the method meet the specifications related to the intended use of the analytical results  (Part B Annex B4 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).

According to international standard, e.g. ISO 17025, a defined analytical quality has been achieved, maintained, and proven by documentation. The establishment of a system of control charts is a basic principle applied in this context. For further information for control charts refer to ISO/TR 13530 (1997). (Part B Annex B5 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual)

The comparability of the data has been ensured through an external quality assessment, such as participation in external quality schemes, ring text and/ or use of external experts (Part B Annex B6 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).

Frequency Mapping of oxygen conditions in the near bottom waters should take place a few times per year at set stations. It is important that this is carried out in late summer or autumn in certain critical areas. High frequency cruise station sampling should be done >12 times per year (basically monthly sampling but weekly in the vegetative period). pH is generally measured in conjunction with oxygen.
Spatial Scope ​Assessment should be done on HELCOM subbasin scale, including coastal areas.
Spatial resolution Samples are taken on COMBINE stations (listed in Part C Annex C1 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual). See map for details.


 

​Element / parameter
pH / pH
​Method Measured in the water column, see HELCOM COMBINE manual.
QA/QC

Part B Annex B14 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual.

Frequency pH is generally measured in conjunction with oxygen.
Spatial Scope -
Spatial resolution ​Based on data from ICES Data centre, ICES Station Dictionary


 

​Element / parameter
H2S / Concentration of H2S
​Method Measured in the water column, see HELCOM COMBINE manual. H2S is also noted but not measured from benthic samples.
QA/QC

See Annex B8 Appendix 4 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual.

Frequency ​H2S is generally measured in conjunction with oxygen.
Spatial Scope All sub-basins.
Spatial resolution ​Based on data from ICES Data centre, ICES Station Dictionary


 
 

assessmenT REQUIREMENTS

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements
For assessment purposes, at least 15 observations should be made yearly in each assessment unit. The compilation of observations is expected to be distributed spatially within the assessment unit in a non-biased way.
​Gaps ​​For pCO2 there is only national monitoring for the time being


 
Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​
Yes (but not for pCO2)
Established methods for assessment?
​Yes
​Adequate understanding of GES?
Yes
Adequate capacity to perform assessments?
​Yes


 

Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)

Quantitative.


Data providers and access

​Data access point
HELCOM, ICES database
Data type (Q10c)
Processed Data sets​
Data availability (Q10c)​
ICES database
​Data access (Q10c)
Open access​
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)

When will data become available? (Q10c)
The data currently available is from 2012 and before, the 2013 data will be reported in May 2014 and will become available by November 2014.
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Yearly
Describe how the data and information from the programme will be made accessible to the EC/EEA

​​Through HELCOM web portal/via ICES

​​Contact points in the Contracting parties

Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added

​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
​Yes, O2 data e.g. used in BSEP143 Eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea 2007-2011 - A concise thematic assessment.
Data is used in the following Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets (BSEF) Hydrography and Oxygen in the Deep Basins


 


 

REFERENCES

Gieskes, J.M., 1969. Effect of temperature on the pH of seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14, 679-685  

Grasshoff, K., Erhardt, M. and Kremling, K. (eds), 1983. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany

HELCOM COMBINE Manual 2012

ISO. 1994. Water quality—Determination of pH. ISO 10523.Radiometer, Copenhagen.

Poisson, A., Culkin, F. and Ridout, P., 1990. Intercomparison of total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon determinations in seawater. UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Science, 59, 69pp.

UNESCO, 1987. Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in seawater. Report by the carbon dioxide sub-panel of the joint panel. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science, 51, 54pp.

Wedborg, M. et al., 1994. In: Humic substances in the global environment. Eds.: N. Senesi and T.M. Miano, Elsevier