Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Water column habitats, Eutrophication, Hydrographical changesProgramme topic: Hydrography
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated. See International Ice Chart Working Group (IICWG), UN Expert Team on Sea Ice (ETSI) and Baltic Sea Ice Service.
Common monitoring guidelines: monitoring of the whole Baltic Sea using satellite observations.
Common quality assurance programme: missing. Every country has its own and quality assurance tools.
Common database: missing. Every country has its own databases.
Physical and chemical features:Annual and seasonal temperature regime and ice cover, current velocity,
upwelling, wave exposure, mixing characteristics, turbidity, residence
Biological features:The predominant seabed and water column habitat type(s) with a description of the characteristic physical and chemical features, such as depth, water temperature regime, currents and other water movements, salinity, structure and substrata composition of the seabed.
Other features:A description of any other features or characteristics typical of or specific to the marine region or subregion
Detailed information on
monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected
from all countries but will be added.
Extent of ice cover maps operationally produced every time a SAR image has been received.
Ice Thickness Charts are operationally produced every time a SAR image has been received, using the latest available ice chart as an input.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
To produce a comprehensive overview for the HELCOM Environment fact sheet Ice Season:
extent of sea ice in the Baltic should be monitored with Baltic wide
comprehensive earth observations (Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR)) during winter season. Temporal
frequency of observations should be at least once a week. Spatial
coverage should be the whole Baltic Sea and resolution 1 km.
Sea ice thickness in the Baltic Sea should be monitored with earth observation data combined with in-situ measurements of ice thickness.
Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)
should provide adequate data and information to enable the periodic
assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress
towards GES as required the MSFD under Article 9 and 11.
Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)
FMI Polar View Products
SMHI Polar View Products