Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Water column habitats​, Eutrophication, Hydrographical changes
Programme topic: ​​Hydrography

Sub-programme: Water column hydrological characteristics

 

​table of contentS

Regional coordination
Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


REgional Coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: fully coordinated.


 

Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments ​Eutrophication
Maritime activities
​Ecological objectives ​​Clear water
Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​D5 Eutrophication
D7 Hydrographical changes
​Criteria (Q5a)
​5.2 Direct effects of nutrient enrichment
​Features (Q5c)
Physical and chemical features:
Annual and seasonal temperature regime and ice cover, current velocity, upwelling, wave exposure, mixing characteristics, turbidity, residence time.
Spatial and temporal distribution of salinity.

Habitat types:
The predominant (seabed and) water column habitat type(s) with a description of the characteristic physical and chemical features, such as depth, water temperature regime, currents and other water movements, salinity, (structure and substrata composition of the seabed).
 
Other features:
 A description of any other features or characteristics typical of or specific to the marine region or subregion.
Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
​Habitats Directive


 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends,
spatial distribution,

status classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures
Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​ X
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division


Monitoring concepts

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
Regional
COMBINE
Physical oceanography: Temperature Temperature in situ (HELCOM COMBINE manual, Annex C-2 Chapter 4)
National, ICESDataType
Guide, HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B Annex B8, Appendix 1 and MyOcean NRT methods.
See map for details
COMBINE Stations, see map for details​ - ​- EEZ Data available since 1877, coordinated monitoring started in 1979   All HELCOM Contracting Parties
Regional
COMBINE
Physical oceanography: Salinity Salinity in situ (HELCOM COMBINE manual, Annex C-2 Chapter 4)
National, ICESDataType
Guide, HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B Annex B8, Appendix 1 and MyOcean NRT methods.
see map for details COMBINE Stations,  see map for details​ - ​- EEZ Data available since 1877, coordinated monitoring started in 1979 All HELCOM Contracting Parties
Regional
COMBINE
Physical oceanography - water transparency, using Secchi depth as proxy Transparency of water column in situ (HELCOM COMBINE manual, Annex C-2 Chapter 4)
National, ICESDataType
Guide. HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B Annex B2
see map for details COMBINE stations ( see map for details​) and WFD stations, where not identical Water clarity
(summer)
​5.2.2 Water transparency related to increase in suspended algae
EEZ Coordinated monitoring started 1979.
All HELCOM Contracting Parties
​Regional
COMBINE
Physical oceanography - water transparency, using Secchi depth as proxy ​Transparency of water column in situ (HELCOM COMBINE manual, Annex C-2 Chapter 4) ​National, ICESDataType
Guide, HELCOM COMBINE manual, Part B Annex B2 and Annex B3
​Variable ​Coastal stations ​​5.2.2 Water transparency related to increase in suspended algae ​DE: 2006
DK: 2010
SE: 2010
FI: 1985
​DE, DK, FI, SE
​National ​Physical oceanography: Temperature (satellites) ​Temperature (Satellites) ​- ​National ​Daily Whole Baltic Sea​ ​- ​- ​EEZ ​1999 ​FI
Coordination via Alg@line
​Physical oceanography: Temperature and salinity (Alg@line) ​Temperature ad salinity (Alg@line) ​- ​National and MyOcean NRT methods.
​Continous ​Ship routes ​- ​- ​EEZ ​2002 ​FI, EE, SE
​National ​Physical oceanography: Secchi (satellites) ​Secchi (Satellites) ​- ​National ​Daily ​Whole Baltic Sea ​- ​- ​EEZ ​2014 ​FI
National
Physical oceanography: Turbidity (satellites) Turbidity (Satellites)
-
National
Daily Whole Baltic Sea
- -
EEZ 2020
 FI

 

Brief description of monitoring

Full description in HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


 

​Parameter
Temperature
​Method Measured in situ in the water column from boat. Mode of sampling: CTD, reverse thermometers or other, fixed station (stations listed in Annex C-1 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
In Finland, temperature measurements are supported by satellite measurements and Alg@line measurements.
QA/QC ​The quality system is formalized in the COMBINE manual (Part B Annex B2 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual). Guidance on the interpretation of ISO/IEC/EN 17025 'General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories' (formerly EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25) was given by a joint international EURACHEM/WELAC Working Group (EURACHEM/WELAC, 1992). Specific guidance to Analytical Quality Control for Water Analysis was elaborated by European - CEN/TC 230 (EN 14996) - as well as by international - ISO/TC 147 SC 7 (ISO/TR 13530) - standardization authorities. The analytical requirements are specified, including definition of the type and nature of the sample and its environment, concentration range of interest and permissible tolerances in analytical error (Part B Annex B3 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
Frequency ​Temperature should be measured always as a supporting parameter.
Satellite measurements are made daily and Alg@line measurements are continuous during the 10-30 ship trip per year.
Spatial Scope ​Covers whole Baltic from coast to EEZ relation to MDFD Descriptor 5, Eutrophication.
Spatial resolution ​In situ samples are taken on COMBINE stations (listed in Annex C-1 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual). See map for details.​


 

​Parameter
Salinity
​Method Measured in situ or in collected samples in the water column from boat. Mode of sampling: CTD, discrete water samples from rosette sampler, reversing bottles or other, fixed station (stations listed in Annex C-1 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
In Finland, salinity measurements are supported by Alg@line measurements.
QA/QC The quality system is formalized in the COMBINE manual (Part B Annex B2 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual). Guidance on the interpretation of ISO/IEC/EN 17025 'General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories' (formerly EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25) was given by a joint international EURACHEM/WELAC Working Group (EURACHEM/WELAC, 1992). Specific guidance to Analytical Quality Control for Water Analysis was elaborated by European - CEN/TC 230 (EN 14996) - as well as by international - ISO/TC 147 SC 7 (ISO/TR 13530) - standardisation authorities. The analytical requirements are specified, including definition of the type and nature of the sample and its environment, concentration range of interest and permissible tolerances in analytical error (Part B Annex B3 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
Frequency Salinity should be measured always as a supporting parameter.
Alg@line measurements are continuous during the 10-30 ship trip per year.
Spatial Scope Covers whole Baltic from coast to EEZ relation to MDFD Descriptor 5, Eutrophication.
Spatial resolution In situ samples are taken on COMBINE stations (listed in Annex C-1 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual). See map for details.​​
​Parameter
​Secchi-depth/Transparency of the water column
​Method Measured in situ in the water column from boat. Mode of sampling: CTD or other, fixed station (stations listed in Annex C-1 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
In Finland, Secchi measurements are supported by satellite measurements.
QA/QC ​The quality system is formalized in the COMBINE manual (Part B Annex B2 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual). Guidance on the interpretation of ISO/IEC/EN 17025 'General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories' (formerly EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25) was given by a joint international EURACHEM/WELAC Working Group (EURACHEM/WELAC, 1992). Specific guidance to Analytical Quality Control for Water Analysis was elaborated by European - CEN/TC 230 (EN 14996) - as well as by international - ISO/TC 147 SC 7 (ISO/TR 13530) - standardization authorities.
Frequency ​For assessment purposes, measurement should be made at least during the summer period (June – September). Secchi depth should be measured at all stations whenever possible, i.e. in day light and when the sea is relatively calm. Light attenuation shall always be measured if primary production measurements are performed (HELCOM COMBINE manual).
Satellite measurements are made daily.
Spatial Scope ​Covers the whole Baltic from coast to EEZ in relation to MSFD Descriptor 5, Eutrophication.
Spatial resolution ​In situ samples are taken on COMBINE stations (listed in Annex C-1 of the HELCOM COMBINE manual). See Figures 3-4 for station network and data mapped to Station dictionary. See map for details.​

​Parameter
Turbidity/Transparency of the water column
​Method Measured in situ or in collected samples in the water column from boat. Mode of sampling: CTD, discrete water samples from rosette, reversing samplers, turbidimeter or other, fixed station (stations listed in Annex C-1 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
QA/QC The quality system is formalized in the COMBINE manual (Part B Annex B2 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual). Guidance on the interpretation of ISO/IEC/EN 17025 'General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories' (formerly EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25) was given by a joint international EURACHEM/WELAC Working Group (EURACHEM/WELAC, 1992). Specific guidance to Analytical Quality Control for Water Analysis was elaborated by European - CEN/TC 230 (EN 14996) - as well as by international - ISO/TC 147 SC 7 (ISO/TR 13530) - standardisation authorities. The analytical requirements are specified, including definition of the type and nature of the sample and its environment, concentration range of interest and permissible tolerances in analytical error (Part B Annex B3 in the HELCOM COMBINE manual).
Frequency In coastal waters turbidity sampling depends on the station, but satellite measurements are made daily.
Spatial Scope Covers coastal waters.
Spatial resolution Turbidity is analyzed in situ only in coastal stations in Finland, but satellite measurements are made for the entire sea area.



assessmenT REQUIREMENTS

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements

​​Open sea: For assessment purposes, at least 15 observations for a high confidence assessment (see BSEP 143) during the period June-September made yearly in each assessment unit. The compilation of observations is expected to be distributed spatially within the assessment unit in a non-biased way.

Coastal areas (between shore and baseline + 1 nm): For an assessment of the coastal water bodies (= WFD water bodies), less than 15 observations per year may be available for the period May(June)-September due to a limited number of stations per assessment unit (=water body).

In Germany, measurements of temperature, salinity and transparency (secchi depth) are carried out at each station 5-10 times p.a. depending on station and area (less frequently in the open sea – 5 to max. 10 times  p.a., more often in the coastal areas where  a monthly frequency (12 times  p.a.) is attempted, but 10 times is realistic due to bad weather conditions etc.). In national assessments of transparency, we have used the summer months (May-September) up to now.

​Gaps

Secchi-depth: Existing coordinated monitoring programme (HELCOM COMBINE manual) does not provide sufficient temporal coverage to achieve high confidence in the core indicator status estimate (BSEP 143).


  

Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​

Yes

Established methods for assessment?

Yes

​Adequate understanding of GES?

Yes

Adequate capacity to perform assessments?

​Yes


 
Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)
Quantitative.


Data providers and access

​Data access point
HELCOM, ICES Database
Data type (Q10c)
Processed Data sets​
Data availability (Q10c)​
ICES Database
​Data access (Q10c)
Open access for environmental data (covered by ICES data policy)
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)

When will data become available? (Q10c)
The data currently available is from 2011/2012 and before, the 2013 data will be reported in May 2014 and become available by November 2014.
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Yearly
Describe how the data and information from the programme will be made accessible to the EC/EEA The data is open access and available to the EEA though HELCOM and ICES Web access points
​​Contact points in the Contracting parties

​Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added


​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
​Yes
Data is used in the following Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets (BSEF)

Developmentof Sea Surface Temperature in the Baltic Sea

Hydrography and Oxygen in deep basins

Water Exchange between the Baltic Sea and the NorthSea, and conditions in the Deep Basins


 

REFERENCES

Grasshoff, K. 1976. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, New York.

Grasshoff, K., Ehrhardt, M., and Kremling, K. (Eds.) 1983. Methods of sea water analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.

HELCOM COMBINE manual

HELCOM, 1988. HELCOM BSEP 27D. Guidelines for the Baltic Monitoring Programme for the Third Stage. Part D. Biological Determinands.

ISO/IEC/EN 17025 Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories 

CEN/TC 230 European Committee of Standarization. Water analysis  ​