Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Water column habitats, Eutrophication, Hydrographical changesProgramme topic: Hydrography
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: fully coordinated.
Common monitoring guidelines:
Guidelines for determination of salinity and temperature using CTD, Guidelines for measuring turbidity, Guidelines for measuring Secchi depth, HELCOM COMBINE manual.
Common quality assurance programme:
HELCOM COMBINE manual,
national and ICES Data Type
Full description in
HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
Open sea: For assessment purposes, at least 15 observations for a high confidence assessment (see
BSEP 143) during the period June-September made yearly in each assessment unit. The compilation of observations is expected to be distributed spatially within the assessment unit in a non-biased way.
Coastal areas (between shore and baseline + 1 nm): For an assessment of the coastal water bodies (= WFD water bodies), less than 15 observations per year may be available for the period May(June)-September due to a limited number of stations per assessment unit (=water body).
In Germany, measurements of temperature, salinity and transparency (secchi depth) are carried out at each station
5-10 times p.a. depending on station and area (less frequently in the open sea – 5 to max. 10 times p.a., more often in the coastal areas where a monthly frequency (12 times p.a.) is attempted, but 10 times is realistic due to bad weather conditions etc.). In national assessments of transparency, we have used the summer months (May-September) up to now.
Secchi-depth: Existing coordinated monitoring programme (HELCOM COMBINE manual) does not provide sufficient temporal coverage to achieve high confidence in the core indicator status estimate (BSEP 143).
Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)
Monitoring should provide adequate data and information to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.
Established methods for assessment?
Adequate understanding of GES?
Adequate capacity to perform assessments?
Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)Quantitative.
Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added
Developmentof Sea Surface Temperature in the Baltic Sea
Hydrography and Oxygen in deep basins
Water Exchange between the Baltic Sea and the NorthSea, and conditions in the Deep Basins
Grasshoff, K. 1976. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, New York.
Grasshoff, K., Ehrhardt, M., and Kremling, K. (Eds.) 1983. Methods of sea water analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.
HELCOM COMBINE manual
HELCOM BSEP 27D. Guidelines for the Baltic Monitoring Programme for the Third Stage. Part D. Biological Determinands.
ISO/IEC/EN 17025 Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration of Laboratories
CEN/TC 230 European Committee of Standarization. Water analysis