Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Water column habitats​, Eutrophication, Hydrographical changes
Programme topic: ​​Hydrography

Sub-programme: Water column physical characteristics

Styles

​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


 

Regional Coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated between the national operational oceanographic institutes (within BOOS/ Copernicus marine service).

  • Common monitoring guidelines: national operational oceanographic institutes.

  • Common quality assurance programme: national operational oceanographic institutes.

  • Common database: missing

Fully coordinated program will be developed and implemented by Copernicus marine service and its in-situ component.


 

Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments Eutrophiction
Biodiversity
Maritime activities
​Ecological objectives Natural distribution and occurrence of plants and animals
Natural oxygen levels
Natural landscapes and seascapes
Safe maritime traffic without accidental pollution
Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors ​​D1 Biodiversity
D5 Eutrophication
D7 Hydrographical changes
D11 Energy, including underwater noise
​Criteria (Q5a)
1.4 Habitat distribution
1.5 Habitat exten
1.6 Habitat condition
6.1. Physical damage, having regard to substrate characteristics
7.1. Spatial characterisation of permanent alterations
7.2. Impact of permanent hydrographical changes
Features (Q5c)
Physical and chemical features:
Annual and seasonal temperature regime and ice cover, current velocity, upwelling, wave exposure, mixing characteristics, turbidity, residence time

Habitat types
:
The predominant seabed and water column habitat type(s) with a description of the characteristic physical and chemical features, such as depth, water temperature regime, currents and other water movements, salinity, structure and substrata composition of the seabed
.
Pressures and impacts (Q5c) Physical loss:
Sealing (e.g. by permanent constructions).
Activities (Q7a, Q7b) Man-made structures: land claim
Man-made structures: Port
Man-made structures: Offshore structures
Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
​Habitats Directive
WFD



Assessment of: (Q4K)
State/Impacts ​​x Temporal trends
Spatial distribution
State classification

Pressures x
Human activities
causing the pressures
​X
Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea X
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin X
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​ X
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division X

Monitoring concepts

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
​Other ​Waves ​Wave action
​Wave buoys, numerical modelling (WAM, SWAN) ​Other ​Continually ​1-2 stations per sub-basin ​- ​- ​EEZ ​2001 ​DE, EE, FI, SE
​Other ​Currents ​Current velocity
​Current meters, numerical modelling (HIROMB, HBM, NEMO) ​​Other ​​Continually 1-2 stations in connectinmg straits ​- ​- ​EEZ ​2001 ​DE, DK, SE
​Other ​Seal level
​Other parameter ​Tide gauges, numerical modelling (HIROMB, HBM, NEMO) ​​​Other ​​​Continually ​5-6 stations per sub-basin ​- ​- ​WFD CW
​2001 ​All HELCOM Contracting Parties
​National ​Physical oceanography ​​Sea level ​​Tide gauge, observe ​National ​Depends on a station type and sensor type (10 min. …. 1 per day) ​Hydrological stations ​- ​- ​Coastal Waters
​PL
​National ​Physical oceanography ​Sea level
​Automatic measurements ​National ​Continous ​12 devices ​- ​-
​Coastal Waters ​1887 ​FI
National Physical oceanography Wave height Automatic measurements
National Continous 4 buoys - - EEZ 1973
FI



Brief description of monitoring

Full description in HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


​Element / parameter
​Physical oceanography / Sea level
​Method Measured by mareographs on the shore
QA/QC The first check is automatic and the second step is manual. Service to the device is made regularly.
Frequency Continuous measurements.
Spatial Scope Along the coastline.
Spatial resolution 12 mareograph devices along the Finnish coastline.


 

​Element / parameter
​Physical oceanography / Waves
​Method Measured by buoys in open sea areas. In Finland one buoy per sub-basin.
QA/QC The first check is automatic and the second step is manual. Service to buoys is made regularly.
Frequency Continuous measurements.
Spatial Scope Gulf of Finland, Northern Baltic Proper, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay.
Spatial resolution 4 buoys



​Element / parameter
Waves/ Significant wave height, period and direction
​Method Wave measurements using wave buoys. Modelling of wave characteristics using numerival models (WAM; SWAN).
QA/QC Routines of institutes
Frequency Period and direction – continuous (statistical parameters with a time step 1 hour) 
Spatial Scope Period and direction – whole Baltic Sea, can be used also for sub-basins.
Spatial resolution Period and direction; numerical modelling – 3 nm. For observation see Waves Baltic Sea Environmental Fact Sheet.



​Element / parameter
Currents/ Current speed and direction
​Method Current measurements using moored current meters. Circulation modelling using 3D numerical models (HIROMB, HBM, NEMO)
QA/QC Described in MyOcean publication: Quality information document for near real time in situ products.
Frequency Continuous, time step 1 hour
Spatial Scope Whole Baltic Sea, can be used also for sub-basins.
Spatial resolution Period and direction; numerical modelling – 1 nm. For observation see EMODNET map service.



​Element / parameter
Sea level/ Height
​Method Automatic measurements of sea level by tide gauges (mainly based on pressure measurements). Circulation modelling using 3D numerical models (HIROMB, HBM, NEMO)
QA/QC Described in MyOcean publication: Quality information document for near real time in situ products.
Frequency Time step 15 minutes (1 hour)
Spatial Scope Whole Baltic Sea, can be used also for sub-basins.
Spatial resolution Numerical modelling 1 nm. For observation BOOS sea level stations.


assessmenT REQUIREMENTS

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements
​Monitoring of waves, currents and sea level has to be conducted in relevant spatial and temporal resolution, e.g. coastal sea level stations (tide gauges) are placed at an appropriate distance from each other in all Baltic sub-basins, wave buoys – at least 1-2 buoys in each Baltic sub-basin, current measurements, at least in the sea areas connecting the Baltic Sea and North Sea as well as different Baltic Sea sub-basins. Numerical models are used for all listed parameters to be able to assess the spatial distribution and temporal trends at the Baltic Sea and its sub-basin scales. Monitoring (and modelling) is conducted in the frames of BOOS and Copernicus marine service provision (at the moment via MyOcean project; starting from April 2015 as a permanent service).
​Gaps Waves monitoring gives a reliable overview of the parameters but it does not cover all sub-basins (Gulf of Riga) or parts of them (Baltic Proper); currents monitoring is done mostly in the southwestern Baltic Sea.
​​
Good temporal and spatial coverage in Poland coastal waters. There was proposed to set up 1 (one) new station.



Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​
Yes
Established methods for assessment? ​Yes
​Adequate understanding of GES?
Irrelevant
Adequate capacity to perform assessments? ​Yes



Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)

Quantitative. Numerical modelling is used, e.g. reanalysis for long enough periods (40 years, see MyOcean products).


Data providers and access

​Data access point
BOOS, Copernicus marine service (MyOcean)
Finnish data is open and accessible (In Finnish).

For Polish data: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW)
Data type (Q10c)
Processed
Modelled data
Data availability (Q10c)​
EMODnet
Finnish data is open and accessible (In Finnish).
For Poland: IMGW database
​Data access (Q10c)
​Open access.
Free and open in Finland.
In Poland it is restricted, it depends on purpose and users.
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)
Hydrography
When will data become available? (Q10c)
Already available in Finland and Poland
Data update frequency (Q10c)
​Depends on measurement method / device
Describe how the data and information from the programmewill be made accessible to the EC/EEA In-situ data is available via EMODnet Physics portal; modelled data is available via MyOcean portal (Copernicus marine service in the future)
​​Contact points in the Contracting Parties Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added
​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments?
Yes
Data is used in the following Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheets (BSEF)

Wave climate in the Baltic Sea

   


 

REFERENCES