Monitoring programme: Biodiversity - Water column habitats, Eutrophication, Hydrographical changesProgramme topic: Hydrography
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: partly coordinated between the national operational oceanographic institutes (within
Copernicus marine service).
Common monitoring guidelines: national operational oceanographic institutes.
Common quality assurance programme:
national operational oceanographic institutes.
Fully coordinated program will be developed and implemented by
Copernicus marine service and its in-situ component.
Full description in
HELCOM COMBINE manual. Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)
Monitoring should provide adequate data and information to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.
Assessment of natural variability
Quantitative. Numerical modelling is used, e.g. reanalysis for long enough periods (40 years, see
Wave climate in the Baltic Sea