Monitoring programme: ContaminantsProgramme topic: Inputs
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: fully coordinated.
Common monitoring guidelines: at EMEP
Common quality assurance programme:
Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy
1998 Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Kiev Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registersof the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)
Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and the Council concerning integrated pollution prevention and control; Minamanta Convention on Mercury
Full description in
EMEP/MSC - W TECHNICAL REPORT 2 / 2013 (Appendix B).
Annual total emissions of Pb, Cd, Hg and Dioxines/Furanes are officially reported every year to the UN ECE Secretariat by the HELCOM Contracting Parties and compiled by EMEP/MSC-E. The methodology for data collection is based on combination of emission measurements and emission estimates based on activity data and emission factors.
The atmospheric depositions of Pb, Cd, Hg and Dioxines/Furanes are calculated with the latest version of EMEP/MSC-E Eulerian Heavy Metal transport model MSCE-HM in Moscow. The latest available official emission data for the HELCOM countries are used in the model computations. Both official data and expert estimates were used for modeling atmospheric transport and deposition of contaminants to the Baltic Sea. Atmospheric depositions of Pb, Cd, Hg and Dioxines/Furanes were computed for the entire EMEP domain, which includes Baltic Sea basin and catchment.
EMEP/MSC-E Eulerian Heavy Metal transport model MSCE-HM'is a multi-pollutant, three-dimensional Eulerian model which takes into account processes of emission, advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformations, wet and dry depositions and inflow of pollutants into the model domain. Complete description of the model and its applications is available on the EMEP web. Calculations of atmospheric transport and depositions of Pb, Cd, Hg and Dioxines/Furanes are performed annually two years in arrears on the basis of emission data officially submitted by Parties to CLRTAP Convention and expert estimates.
There are gaps in time series of national emissions which have to be corrected by experts. No official information about the uncertainty of provided contaminants emission data have been sent to EMEP from both EMEP and HELCOM Contracting Parties and hence further work on emission uncertainty is required. Submitted emissions data are passing through QA/QC procedure and stored in the EMEP Centre for Emission inventories and Projections CEIP in Vienna, Austria. There are gaps in time series of national emissions which have to be corrected by experts.
The results of the MSC-E Eulerian Heavy Metal transport model (MSCE-HM) are routinely compared with available measurements at EMEP and HELCOM stations. The comparison of calculated versus measured data indicates that the model predicts the observed air concentrations of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury within the accuracy of approximately 70%, 40% and 10% respectively with measured concentrations.
PCDD/Fs are not regularly measured by the EMEP monitoring network. Evaluation of modelling results on PCDD/Fs against measurements was performed in framework of the studies of EMEP region pollution by dioxins and furans (Shatalov et al., 2012; Gusev et al., 2013). For this purpose available measurements made by various national and international campaigns reported in literature were used. It was found that the agreement between calculated and measured total PCDD/F toxicities was within a factor of two for more than 50% of available measurements atbackground locations. More detailed information on the comparison of model estimates and observed PCDD/F concentrations can be found in the EMEP Status Reports (Shatalov et al., 2012; Gusev et al., 2013). Further work is required on reducing uncertainties in emission data and better parameterization of physical processes in the EMEP Unified model.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
Data on atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is needed to assess the amount of nutrient input to the sea to allow for follow-up of effectiveness of implemented measures (under e.g. BSAP, Gothenburg Protocol, National Emission Ceiling Directive), for the core pressure indicator on nutrient inputs as well as follow-up of progress towards the agreed BSAP country-wise nutrient reduction targets (CART).
Pressure data should also be useable for HELCOM holistic assessments (i.e. pressure index).
Deposition data is calculated as total annual inputs per 50*50 km grid (available via the
(EMEP Steering Body has decided to have this 0.1x0.1 degree grid as the official reporting resolution by 2017 where all countries are requested to deliver emission data in this resolution by then. So until then HELCOM submission will still be in 50km resolution, same as the official emission reporting submissions.)
This section indicates whether the programme provides suitable and sufficient data and information to enable assessment of progress towards achievement of the relevant environmental targets (using indicators identified by MS under Art. 10).
There has been no formal agreement on targets for atmospheric deposition of hazardous substance. Annual deposition (including normalized input) are reported by EMEP to HELCOM annually. The Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheet "Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals on the Baltic Sea" contains data on annual deposition and once targets are agreed on, appropriate figure(s) could be produced. No sufficient emission assessment or deposition modeling exist for numerous substances.
Measures - nature of the activity and/or pressure covered by the programme (spatial distribution, frequency of activity)
How the monitoring is considered adequate to identify which activities and pressures that are causing environmental degradation and how it can help identifying new measures (Q7b)
Measures - Adequacy dor assesssments of measures (Art. 13) (Q7e)The monitoring supports assessment of follow up measures.
EMEP/MSC - W TECHNICAL REPORT 2 / 2013 as well as previous annual reports by EMEP to HELCOM
Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheet on emissions and depositions of heavy metals and PCDDF
Recommendation 24-1 Monitoring of airborne pollution load