Monitoring programme: EutrophicationProgramme topic: Inputs
The monitoring of this sub-programme is: fully coordinated. Air emission and atmospheric deposition monitoring are coordinated by EMEP.
Common monitoring guidelines: at EMEP
Common quality assurance programme:
Nutrient and organic matter enrichment:
Inputs of fertilisers and other nitrogen
and phosphorus-rich substances (e.g. from point and diffuse sources, including agriculture, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition.
Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy
Gothenburg Protocol of the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)
Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on National Emission Ceilings for certain pollutants (NEC Directive)
of the European Parliament and the Council concerning integrated pollution prevention and control
Full description in
EMEP/MSC - W TECHNICAL REPORT 2 / 2013 (Appendix B).
Dry/wet deposition of oxidized and reduced nitrogen + total nitrogen.
Annual total emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are officially reported every year to the UN ECE Secretariat by the HELCOM Contracting Parties and compiled by EMEP/MSC-W. The methodology for data collection is based on combination of emission measurements and emission estimates based on activity data and emission factors.
The atmospheric depositions of oxidized and reduced nitrogen are calculated with the latest version of EMEP/MSC-W model in Oslo. The latest available official emission data for the HELCOM countries are used in the model computations. Both official data and expert estimates were used for modeling
atmospheric transport and deposition of nitrogen compounds to the Baltic Sea.
Atmospheric depositions of oxidized and reduced nitrogen were computed for the entire EMEP domain, which includes Baltic Sea basin and catchment. EMEP/MSC-W model is a multi-pollutant, three-dimensional Eulerian model which takes into account processes of emission, advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformations, wet and dry depositions and inflow of pollutants into the model domain. Complete description of the model and its applications is available on the
Calculations of atmospheric transport and depositions of nitrogen compounds are performed annually two years in arrears on the basis of emission data officially submitted by Parties to CLRTAP Convention and expert estimates. The chemical Transport Model EMEP/ MSC-W is used.
For more information: Simpson, D., Benedictow, A., Berge, H., Bergstrom, R., Emberson, L.D., Fagerli, H.,Flechard, C.R., Hayman, G.D., Gauss, M., Jonson, J.E., Jenkin, M.W., Nyri, A, Richter,C., Semeena, V.S, Tsyro, S., Tuovinen, J.-P., Valdebenito,A., and Wind, P.,
The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model technical description. Atmospheric Chem-istry and Physics, 12, 7825-7865.
There are gaps in time series of national emissions which have to be corrected by experts. No official information about the uncertainty of provided nitrogen emission data have been sent to EMEP from both EMEP and HELCOM Contracting Parties and hence further work on emission uncertainty is required. Submitted emissions data are passing through QA/QC procedure and stored in the EMEP Centre for Emission inventories and Projections (CEIP) in Vienna, Austria. Reviews about the consistency, comparability and trends of national inventories are available at CEIP. There are gaps in time series of national emissions which have to be corrected by experts.
The results of the EMEP Unified model are routinely compared with available measurements at EMEP and HELCOM stations. The comparison of calculated versus measured data indicates that the model predicts the observed air concentrations of nitrogen within the accuracy of approximately 30%. Further work is required on reducing uncertainties in emission data and better parameterization of physical processes in the EMEP Unified model.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
Data on atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is needed to assess the amount of nutrient input to the sea to allow for follow-up of effectiveness of implemented measures (under e.g. BSAP, Gothenburg Protocol, National Emission Ceiling Directive), for the core pressure indicator on nutrient inputs as well as follow-up of progress towards the agreed BSAP country-wise nutrient reduction targets (CART).
Pressure data should also be useable for HELCOM holistic assessments (i.e. pressure index).
Deposition data is calculated as total annual inputs per 50*50 km grid (available via the EMEP website).
(EMEP Steering Body has decided to have this 0.1x0.1 degree grid as the official reporting resolution by 2017 where all countries are requested to deliver emission data in this resolution by then. So until then HELCOM submission will still be in 50km resolution, same as the official emission reporting submissions.)
Targets - Adequacy for assessment of progress with targets (Art. 10) (Q6b)
This section indicates whether the programme provides suitable and sufficient data and information to enable assessment of progress towards achievement of the relevant environmental targets (using indicators identified by MS under Art. 10).
The BSAP nutrient reduction scheme’s maximum allowable inputs (MAI) of nutrients can be implemented by measures taken to reduce waterborne and airborne nutrient inputs. Also the effects of reductions in air emissions outside the HELCOM area (following implementation of Gothenburg Protocol) are expected to contribute to fulfillment of MAI. Annual datasets of contributions for different sources (countries and shipping) to N deposition to the Baltic, allows for follow-up of progress towards MAI and country-wise allocation of nutrient reduction (CART).
It should be noted that the MAI (which can be considered as an “environmental target") does not include separate targets for waterborne and airborne inputs. Also the core pressure indicator on nutrient inputs combine airborne and nutrient inputs.
Measures - nature of the activity and/or pressure covered by the programme (spatial distribution, frequency of activity)
How the monitoring is considered adequate to identify which activities and pressures that are causing environmental degradation and how it can help identifying new measures (Q7b)
Measures - Adequacy for assesssments of measures (Art. 13) (Q7e)The monitoring supports assessment of follow up measures.
In time for the next assessment due in 2018
EMEP/MSC - W TECHNICAL REPORT 2 / 2013 as well as previous annual reports by EMEP to HELCOM
Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheet on emissions and depositions of nitrogen
Recommendation 24-1 Monitoring of airborne pollution load