Monitoring programme: Litter
Programme topic: Litter

Sub-programme: macrolitter charasteristics and abundance/volume

 

​table of contentS

Regional coordination

Purpose of monitoring

Monitoring concepts table

Assessment requirements

Data providers and access

References


REgional Coordination

The monitoring of this sub-programme is: not coordinated.

Currently monitoring is carried out at national level.


Purpose of monitoring (q4K)

Follow up of progress towards:

Baltic Sea Action Plan​ (BSAP)​ ​ ​ ​Segments Hazardous substances
Maritime activities
​Ecological objectives

​​Concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels

Marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) ​ ​ ​Descriptors D10 Litter
​Criteria (Q5a)

10.1 Characteristics of litter in the marine and coastal environment
10.2 Impacts of litter on marine life

​Features (Q5c)

Other features:
A description of any other features or characteristics typical of or specific to the marine region or subregion.

Other relevant legislation (Q8a)
Currently no relevant legislation


 
 

Assessment of: (Q4k)
State/Impacts ​​X temporal trends, state classification
Pressures
Human activities
causing the pressures
Effectiveness of measures

Scale of data aggregation for assessments: (Q10a)
HELCOM assessment unit Level 1: Baltic Sea
​HELCOM assessment unit Level 2: Subbasin
HELCOM assessment unit Level 3: Subbasins with coastal and offshore division​
HELCOM assessment unit Level 4: Subbasins with coastal WFD division
​Other: National
X


Monitoring concepts table

Coordination Elements
Q9a (Q5c)
Parameter
Q9a (Q5c)
Method
Q9c, Q9d
QA/QC
Q9e, 9f
Frequency
Q9h, 9i
Spatial resolution
Q9g, 9i
Link to HELCOM core indicators Link to
MSFD GES characteristics

Q5b 
Spatial scope
Q4i
Monitoring started
Q4h
CPs monitoring
National Anthropogenic litter
Quantity and type of litter items
Bottom trawl
National 2/annually
​​​50 transects
-
10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor..
EEZ 2010
DK
National Seafloor litter
Quantity and type of litter items
Bottom trawl
National 4 surveys per year
​​ -
10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor...
EEZ 2010
DK
National Litter in biota
Quantity and type of litter in animal stomachs OSPAR EcoQO
OSPAR Opprotunity basis
1
-
10.2.1 Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals..
EEZ 2002
 DK
​National ​Beach litter
​Quantity and type of litter items OSPAR beach litter guideline ​OSPAR 1 survey a year
​1 ​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... EEZ
DK
National ​​Beach litter Quantity and type of litter items MARLIN ​National 3 times a year (spring, summer, autumn)
​10 ​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... ​EEZ April 14, 2014 (8 monitoring areas were  part of the Project MARLIN monitoring programme and have been monitored since April 23, 2012)
EE
National ​Beach litter Quantity and type of litter items ​MARLIN
National​ 3 per year​ ​9 beaches
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines...
​EEZ ​​2012 FI
National ​Beach litter Quantity and type of litter items ​​OSPAR
Guidelines
​OSPAR​ 4 per year​ ​​27 beaches ​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... ​EEZ ​2011/2012, first with less stations DE
National ​Beach litter Quantity and type of litter items ​OSPAR
Guidelines
​OSPAR​
4 per year​
3 beaches, as part of the Marine Litter Beach Monitoring Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (see above)
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... ​EEZ ​2012 DE
National ​Seafloor litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​Fishing for litter
​​National ​About 30 fishermen
​- 10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor... Heiligen-hafen, Burgstaaken/ Fehmarn and Sassnitz ​2012 ​​DE
National Beach litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​OSPAR Guidelines
​OSPAR 4 per year
​3 beaches
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... Fehmarn ​2011 DE
National Floating macrolliter
Quantity and type of litter items ​​Aerial survey
​​National Four times per year/each season
​Entire German Baltic Sea
​- 10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor... ​EEZ ​2002 ​​DE
National Beach litter (between 2,5 cm and 50 cm)
Quantity and type of litter items ​OSPAR Guidelines
​OSPAR Seasonal
​4 beaches
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... EEZ ​2012 LT
National Seafloor litter
Quantity and type of litter items
​Bottom trawling
​​National Seasonal
​49 trawls
​- 10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor... EEZ ​2012 LT
National Beach litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​Sieving ​​National Seasonal
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... EEZ ​2014 LT
National (draft monitoring program - not accepted yet)
​Beach litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​National methodology
​​National Seasonal
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... EEZ ​2015 PL
National (draft monitoring program - not accepted yet)
​Floating litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​Visual ship-based observations and samplings
​​National ​Yearly ​6 stations, 2 transects
​- Properties and quantities of ML do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment EEZ 2015​ PL
National (draft monitoring program - not accepted yet)
Seafloor litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​Fishing for litter ​​National ​Every 2 years ​- Properties and quantities of ML do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment EEZ ​2015 PL
National ​Beach litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​MARLIN methodology
​​National 3 times a year
​10 stations
​- 10.1.1 Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines... EEZ ​2014 SE
National Seafloor litter
Quantity and type of litter items ​Bottom trawling
​National 4 times per year (Q1 Q3 in Kattegat, Q1 Q4 in the Baltic Sea).
​30-50 stations -
10.1.2 Trends in the amount of litter in the water column (including floating at the surface) and deposited on the sea-floor... EEZ 2010 (IBTS)​2011 (BITS)
SE



Brief description of monitoring

Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.


​Element / parameter Anthropogenic litter/Quantity and type of litter items
​Method Bottom trawl survey usually used for fish but litter is recorded.
QA/QC National
Frequency 2/annually
Spatial Scope EEZ
Spatial resolution 50


 

​Element / parameter Seafloor litter/Quantity and type of litter items (e.g. SE)
​Method IBTS/BITS programmes
QA/QC IBTS/BITS protocol
Frequency 4 surveys per year / -  / Seasonal
Spatial Scope EEZ
Spatial resolution ​-


 
 

​Element / parameter Seafloor litter/Quantity and type of litter items, DE
​Method IBTS/BITS programmes / Fishing for litter / Bottom trawling
QA/QC IBTS/BITS protocol
Frequency 4 surveys per year / -  / Seasonal
Spatial Scope Heiligen hafen, Burstaaken/Fehrmarn and Sassnitz
Spatial resolution ​About 30 fishermen


 
 

​Element / parameter Beach litter/Quantity and type of litter items
​Method EE: ​Litter items > 2,5 cm (in the longest dimension), 100-1000 m sampling units/assessment areas. UNEP/IOC; UNEP Operational Guidelines for Comprehensive Beach Litter Assessment (2009)

DE: OSPAR beach litter monitoring, 100 m long, x m wide (OSPAR Commission 2010: Guideline for Monitoring Marine Litter on the Beaches in the OSPAR Maritime Area, Edition 1.0).

LT: Sieving 5 cm of surface sand of 50cmx50cm quadrat with 2 mm sieve.

PL: In the monitoring programme the Polish coastline is divided into 10 areas of 50 km length. Each of these areas will be further divided into segments of 5 km length. In each of the segments (as far as possible) monitoring of litter [washed ashore and left] will be conducted. Litter will be counted, classified and characterized in terms of composition and collected if possible. It is assumed that a close cooperation with local administration bodies of seaside communes and with non-governmental organizations will be conducted.

SE: MARLIN methodology.
QA/QC EE: National, DE: OSPAR, LT: OSPAR/National, PL: National
Frequency EE: 3 times a year (spring, summern, autumn)
DE: 4 per year
LT: Seasonal
PL: Yearly
Spatial Scope EEZ
Spatial resolution EE: ​10
DE: 27 beaches/ 3 as part of the Marine Litter Beach Monitoring Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
LT: 4 beaches
PL: _
SE: Regular monitoring started in 2014. SE plans to monitoirng at least 10 beaches in the HELCOM area.



​Element / parameter Litter in the water column & floating litter/Quantity and type of litter items (PL)
​Method The monitoring will be carried out within the monitoring cruises devoted to other parameters (hydrochemistry and biology). The methodology will be based on visual ship-based observations of floating litter at monitoring stations and at transects, and categorization of material and size.
QA/QC National
Frequency Yearly
Spatial Scope EEZ
Spatial resolution 6 stations, 2 transects


 

​Element / parameter Litter in the water column & seafloor litter/Quantity and type of litter items (PL)
​Method Litter monitoring will be integrated with fish monitoring (trawling for fish stock assessments). Also the results of projects focusing on marine litter on seafloor, coordinated by non-governmental organizations (eg. WWF Poland) will be used.
QA/QC National
Frequency Every 2 years
Spatial Scope EEZ
Spatial resolution -


 
 

assessmenT REQUIREMENTS

Monitoring requirements and gaps

Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.

Monitoring
requirements

There is wide experience and data collected on beach litter, litter in the seafloor and fishing gear/lost fishing nets in the HELCOM area. Beach litter monitoring is seasonal and associated to clean-up activities. Seafloor litter collection is integrated to bottom trawling for fish stocks assessment, so therefore the selection of the sampling stations as well as frequency is associated to the casuistic of the species of interest. Finally, information provided from fishing for litter initiatives contributes to the assessment of the quality of the open water.

​Gaps

National monitoring is ongoing in several Contracting Parties, although no coordinated monitoring programme is in force.


Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)

Monitoring should provide adequate data and information  to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.

​Adequate data?​ ​Yes
Established methods for assessment? ​No
​Adequate understanding of GES? No
Adequate capacity to perform assessments? ​No




Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)
Expert opinion.


Data providers and access

​Data access point ​National databases​
Data type (Q10c) Processed data sets​
Data availability (Q10c)​ -
​Data access (Q10c) -
​INSPIRE standard (Q10c)
When will data become available? (Q10c) -
Data update frequency (Q10c) -
Describe how the data and information from the programme will be made accessible to the EC/EEA
​​Contact points in the Contracting parties ​Contact point to national monitoring programmes will be added
​Has the data been used in HELCOM assessments? ​No


 

REFERENCES

MARLIN (2013) Final Report of Baltic Marine Litter Project MARLIN - Litter Monitoring and Raising Awareness.

OSPAR (2010) Guideline for Monitoring Marine Litter on the Beaches in the OSPAR Maritime Area.

UNEP/IOC (2009) UNEP/IOC Guidance on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter