Monitoring programme: LitterProgramme topic: Litter
Concentrations of hazardous substances close to natural levels
10.1 Characteristics of litter in the marine and coastal environment10.2 Impacts of litter on marine life
Other features:A description of any other features or characteristics typical of or specific to the marine region or subregion.
Detailed information on monitoring frequency and spatial resolution has not yet been collected from all countries but will be added.
Monitoring is to be carried out to fulfill assessment requirements of HELCOM ecological objectives that are specified through HELCOM core indicators. The requirements on monitoring can
include number of stations, the sampling frequency and replication.
There is wide experience and data collected on beach litter, litter in the seafloor and fishing gear/lost fishing nets in the HELCOM area. Beach litter monitoring is seasonal and associated to clean-up activities. Seafloor litter collection is integrated to bottom trawling for fish stocks assessment, so therefore the selection of the sampling stations as well as frequency is associated to the casuistic of the species of interest. Finally, information provided from fishing for litter initiatives contributes to the assessment of the quality of the open water.
National monitoring is ongoing in several Contracting Parties, although no coordinated monitoring programme is in force.
Adequacy for assessment of GES (Q5d)
Monitoring should provide adequate data and information to enable the periodic assessment of environmental status, and distance from and progress towards GES as required by MSFD under Article 9 and 11.
Assessment of natural variability (Q5e)Expert opinion.
MARLIN (2013) Final Report of Baltic Marine Litter Project MARLIN - Litter Monitoring and Raising Awareness.
OSPAR (2010) Guideline for Monitoring Marine Litter on the Beaches in the OSPAR Maritime Area.
UNEP/IOC (2009) UNEP/IOC Guidance on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter