Assessing the state of the Baltic Sea

HELCOM Contracting Parties have been monitoring the state of the Baltic Sea jointly for decades. ​This extensive amount of data shows how the marine environment has changed over time.

  • Holistic assessments give a comprehensive overview of the ecosystem health of the entire regional sea. These major assessments assist the region's environmental managers and decision-makers, so that they can base their work on sound, up-to-date knowledge of the status of the sea.​

    Ecosystem Health of the Baltic Sea Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea Maritime Activities in the Baltic Sea Eutrophication Biodiversity Hazardous substances Environment Fact Sheets

  • HELCOM monitors the trends of the marine environment and how the environment responds to management actions. The trends are followed under the four thematic sections of the Baltic Sea Action Plan:

  • HELCOM regularly produces a Pollution Load Compilation (PLC), which assesses the data collected by the Contracting Parties on total air and waterborne inputs of nutrients and some hazardous substances to the Baltic Sea.

  • Commonly agreed indicators are regularly updated to periodically produce thematic and holistic assessments. 


​Phosphorus inputs to the Baltic Sea via waterways from 1900 to 2014. Peak year was 1981. 

 Recent publications