Phosphorus inputs via water ways (Baltic proper). Peak year was 1981.
HELCOM Contracting Parties have been monitoring the state of the Baltic Sea jointly for decades. This extensive amount of data shows how the marine environment has changed over time.
The HELCOM Initial Holistic Assessment provides the first ecosystem health assessment of the entire Baltic Sea, also providing information on the associated benefits and costs to society. The assessment is based on data for the years 2003 - 2007.
The holistic assessment shows that none of the open-water basins are in a good environmental state. Most sub-basins are negatively affected by eutrophication, hazardous substances and the conservation of species is unfavourable. The human communities linked to the sea have been negatively affected by the deteriorated state of the Baltic Sea. Given the current impaired status of ecosystem health, the pressures from agriculture, fisheries, industries, the maritime sector as well as from communities need to be effectively managed.
HELCOM follows the trends of the marine environment and how the environment responds to management actions. The trends are followed under the four thematic sections of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Commonly agreed indicators are regularly updated to periodically produce thematic and holistic assessments.
Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 122: Ecosystem Health of the Baltic Sea - HELCOM Initial Holistic Assessment (2010)
HELCOM Monitoring and Assessment strategy