AA Baltic photic benthos


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description

The vertical zone in which the amount of light is sufficient for photosynthesis.

Physical environment

Salinity range: All; Exposure range: All; Depth range: usually from 0 to at least 15 meters. Varies also naturally with water turbidity.

Characteristic species

Algae and higher plants, benthic invertebrates

Mapping advise (habitat delineation, identification, similar types)

Secchi depth multiplied by 2.5. Due to temporal variation of water turbidity, the depth should represent a long-term growth season average. The presence of foliose vegetation can also be used with other indicators.

Quality descriptors

The depth of the photic zone usually correlates with water quality

Geographic range

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats

Increased turbidity caused by eutrophication and resuspended sediments

Correspondence with other classification systems

HELCOM 1998:

2. Benthic marine biotopes

EUNIS 2012:

A Marine habitats