AA.B1 Baltic photic hard clay characterized by macroscopic epibenthic biotic structures


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with at least 90 % coverage of hard clay. Macroscopic vegetation or sessile macroscopic epifauna cover ≥10 % of the substrate.

Physical environment

Salinity range: all; Exposure range: all; Depth range: photic zone

Quality descriptors

Diversity, abundance and biomass of fauna.

Geographic range

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats


Correspondence with other classification systems

HELCOM 1998:
2.3 Hard clay bottoms

2.3.2 Sublittoral photic zone