AA.J1B1 Baltic photic sand dominated by pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus and/or Stuckenia pectinata)


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with at least 90 % coverage of sand. Sand has less than 20 % of mud/silt/clay fraction (<63 µm), and the proportion of sand (grain size 0.063–2 mm) exceeds 70% of the combined gravel and sand fraction.  Submerged rooted plants, including plants with rhizoids (i.e. Charales) cover at least 10 % of the seabed, and more than other perennial attached erect groups. Out of the submerged rooted plants, ponweed constitutes at least 50 % of the biovolume.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: <6 psu; Exposure range: sheltered to moderate; Depth range: from 0.2 to about 4 meters

Characteristic species        

Potamogeton perfoliatus, Stuckenia pectinata


Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats

Decreased light penetration depth caused by eutrophication

Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.5 Sandy bottoms

2.5.2 Sublittoral photic zone Level bottoms dominated by macrophyte vegetation

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment

A5.54 Angiosperm communities in reduced salinity

A5.542 Association with [Potamogeton pectinatus]