AA.J1Q3 Baltic photic sand dominated by stable aggregations of unattached Furcellaria lumbricalis


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description 

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with at least 90 % coverage of sand. Sand has less than 20 % of mud/silt/clay fraction (<63 µm), and the proportion of sand (grain size 0.063–2 mm) exceeds 70% of the combined gravel and sand fraction. No perennial attached erect gropu has a coverage  ≥ 10 %. Stable aggregations of unattached perennial vegetation covers at least 10 %, out of which Furcellaria lumbricalis constitutes at least 50 % of the biovolume.      

Physical environment       

Salinity range: <4.5 psu; Exposure range: sheltered to moderate; Depth range: down to about 10 meters, level bottoms

Characteristic species        

Furcellaria lumbricalis


Whole Baltic Sea, typical along the coast of the Baltic states

Anthropogenic threats

eutrophication, dredging for industrial use

Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.5 Sandy bottoms

2.5.2 Sublittoral photic zone Level bottoms dominated by macrophyte vegetation


EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment