AA.J1V Baltic photic sand characterized by mixed epibenthic macrocommunity


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with at least 90 % coverage of sand. Sand has less than 20 % of mud/silt/clay fraction (<63 µm), and the proportion of sand (grain size 0.063–2 mm) exceeds 70% of the combined gravel and sand fraction. No perennial attached erect group, perennial unattached algae or annual algae cover more than 10 %.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: all; Exposure range: moderate; Depth range: photic zone

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     

Decreased light penetration depth and increased sedimentation caused by eutrophication

Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.5 Sandy bottoms

2.5.2 Sublittoral photic zone

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.2 Sublittoral sand

A5.21 Sublittoral sand in low or reduced salinity