AA.M1 Baltic photic mixed substrate characterized by macroscopic epibenthic biotic structures


Author                                     

HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with less than 90% coverage of a certain substrate type. Mixed substrates comprise any proportion of mix of any substrate type of soft/mobile and/or hard/non-mobile substrates. Coverage of macroscopic vegetation or sessile macroscopic epifauna is ≥10%.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: all; Exposure range: all; Depth range: photic zone – more common in the shallow

Characteristic species        

Cladophora spp., Ceramium spp., Laminaria spp., Fucus spp., Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Aegogrophila linnaei, Fontinalis spp., Stuckenia pectinata, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Zannichellia palustris, Mytilus spp., Modiolus modiolus, Dreissena polymorpha, Ascidiacea, Dendrodoa grossularia, Molgula spp., Laomedea spp, Cordylophora caspia, Electra crustulenta, Flustra foliacea, Amphibalanus improvises, Balanus crenatus, Semibalanus balanoides,

Mapping advise (habitat delineation, identification, similar types)             

Photic zone areas with less than 90% coverage of a certain substrate type. Coverage of macroscopic vegetation or sessile macroscopic epifauna is ≥10%.

Quality descriptors             

Lower limit, amount of epiphytic algae

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     

Eutrophication

Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone

 EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.4 : Sublittoral mixed sediments

A5.41 : Sublittoral mixed sediment in low or reduced salinity

http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/habitats/5435