AA.M1C Baltic photic mixed substrate characterized by perennial algae


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with more than 10 %, but less than 90 % coverage of both hard and soft substrata. Coverage of perennial attached algae is at least 10 % , and more than other perennial attached erect groups.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: low to moderate; Exposure range: moderate to high; Depth range: photic zone down from about 0.5 meters.

Characteristic species        

Fucus spp., Furcellaria lumbricalis, Coccotylus truncatus, Deleseria sanguinea,Polysiphonia spp, Cladophora rupestris, Sphacelaria spp.

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     


Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone by macrophyte vegetation

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment