AA.M1C2 Baltic photic mixed substrate dominated by perennial non-filamentous corticated red algae


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description 

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with more than 10 %, but less than 90 % coverage of both hard and soft substrata. Perennial algae covers at least 10 % of the seabed and more than other perennial attached erect groups. Out of the perennial algae, perennial non-filamentous corticated red algae constitutes at least 50 % of the biovolume.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: moderate to high; Exposure range: moderate to high; Depth range: photic zone from about 3 meters.

Characteristic species        

Furcellaria lumbricalis

Quality descriptors

Lower limit of vegetation, amount of epiphytic algae


Baltic Sea up to the Archipelago Sea in the north and central Gulf of Finland in the east



Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone Dominated by macrophyte vegetation

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment