AA.M1D Baltic photic mixed substrate characterized by aquatic moss


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with more than 10 %, but less than 90 % coverage of both hard and soft substrata. Coverage of aquatic moss is at least 10 %, and more than other perennial attached erect groups.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: low to moderate; Exposure range: moderate to high; Depth range: photic zone down from about 0.5 meters.

Characteristic species        

Fontinalis antipyretica

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     


Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone by macrophyte vegetation

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment