AA.M1Q Baltic photic mixed substrate characterized by stable aggregations of unattached perennial vegetation


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with more than 10 %, but less than 90 % coverage of both hard and soft substrata. Coverage of stable aggregations of unattached perennial vegetation is at least 10 %, while perennial attached erect groups cover less than 10%.

Physical environment       

Salinity range: moderate to high; Exposure range: low to moderate; Depth range: photic zone, more common in the deepest and the most shallow parts.

Characteristic species        

Furcellaria lumbricalis, Fucus spp., Ceratophyllum demersum

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     


Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone Dominated by macrophyte vegetation

EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment