AA.M2T Baltic photic mixed substrate characterized by sparse epibenthic macrocommunity


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic photic bottoms with 10- 90 % coverage of hard (rock/boulders/stone) and 10-90 % soft substrata (e.g. muddy/coarse sediment/sand). Sessile/semi-sessile macroscopic epibenthic fauna and flora is present but has less than 10 % coverage.

Physical environment       

Substrate is soft or crystalline rock, boulders or stones mixed with mobile substrates such as sand or coarse substrate. Depth range: photic zone

Quality descriptors             

Diversity, abundance and biomass of fauna.

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     


Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms

2.8.2 Sublittoral photic zone With little or no macrophyte vegetation


EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.4 : Sublittoral mixed sediments

A5.41 : Sublittoral mixed sediment in low or reduced salinity

A5.411 : Baltic level mixed sediment bottoms of the infralittoral photic zone with little or no macrophyte vegetation