AB.A1G Baltic aphotic rock and boulders characterized by epibenthic cnidarians


Author                                     

HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description            

Baltic bottoms in the aphotic zone with at least 90 % coverage of rock, boulders or stones of more than 63 mm in diameter. Sessile/semi-sessile epibenthic cnidarians cover at least 10 % of the seabed and more than other perennial attached erect groups.

Physical environment       

Substrate is rock and boulders. Depth is typically 20 meters and deeper.

Characteristic species        

hydroids, sea anemones, corals

Quality descriptors             

Diversity, abundance and biomass of fauna.

Geographic range               

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats     

Eutrophication

Correspondence with other classification systems               

HELCOM 1998:

2.1 Rocky bottoms

2.1.1 Aphotic zone

2.2 Stony bottoms

2.2.1 Aphotic zone