HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team
bottoms in the aphotic zone with at least 90 % coverage of rock, boulders
or stones of more than 63 mm in diameter. Epibenthic cnidarians cover at least
10%of the seabed and more than other perennial attached erect groups. Out of
the epibenthic cnidarians, hydroids constitute at least 50 % of the biomass.
is rock and/or boulders.
Laomedea spp., Cordylophora caspia
abundance and biomass of fauna.
from Russian waters
HELCOM 1998: 2.1 Rocky bottoms
2.1.1 Soft rock
220.127.116.11 Aphotic zone
2.1.2 Solid rock
18.104.22.168 Aphotic zone
2.2 Stony bottoms
2.2.1 Aphotic zone
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