AB.F Baltic aphotic ferromanganese concretion bottoms


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description

Baltic bottoms in the aphotic zone with at least 90 % coverage of FeMn concretions

Physical environment

Salinity range: All; Exposure range: All; Depth range: Aphotic zone

Mapping advise (habitat delineation, identification, similar types)

Aphotic zone areas covered by ferromanganese concretions

Geographic range

Gulf of Finland, Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Proper, smaller occurrences possible in the whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats

Exploitation for industrial use