HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team
aphotic zone bottoms with at least 90 % coverage of muddy sediment. The
sediment must contain at least 20 % of mud, silt or clay (grain size less
than 63 µm). 0><10% of the seabed is covered by sessile macroscopic
populations of sea-pens are present in
is muddy sediment. Depth is typically from 15 to 200 meters. Appears in low to
moderate energy exposure classes.
methods such as ROV:s of SCUBA diving are needed since it is possible that the
animals will never appear in a grab-sample.
abundance and biomass of fauna
from the Sound, Kattegat
2.7 Muddy bottoms
2.7.1 Aphotic zone
Sea pens and burrowing megafauna communities
- habitat under threat and/or in decline in all areas of occurrence Kattegat
A5 Sublittoral sediment
A5.3 Sublittoral mud
A5.37 Deep circalittoral mud
A5.378 Baltic muddy bottoms of the aphotic zone
OSPAR list of threathened biotopes:
Sea-pen and burrowing megafauna communities
Habitat occurs in the OSPAR Region II (including Kattegat) and is listed threatened and/or in decline in this region
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This biotope has been listed as Endangered (EN) in the HELCOM Red List of Baltic Sea biotopes and habitats.