AB.J Baltic aphotic sand


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description

Baltic bottoms in the aphotic zone with at least 90 % coverage of sand. Sand has less than 20 % of mud/silt/clay fraction (<63 µm), and the proportion of sand (grain size 0.063–2 mm) exceeds 70 % of the combined gravel and sand fraction.

Physical environment

Salinity range: all; Exposure range: all; Depth range: below photic zone ‑ more common in the shallow.

Geographic range

Whole Baltic Sea

Correspondence with other classification systems

HELCOM 1998:

2.5 Sandy bottoms

2.5.1 Aphotic zone


EUNIS 2012:

A5 Sublittoral sediment

A5.2 Sublittoral sand

A5.27 Deep circalittoral sand

A5.273 Baltic sandy bottoms of the aphotic zone