AB.K Baltic aphotic hard anthropogenically created substrates


HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team

Textual description

Baltic bottoms in the aphotic zone with at least 90 % coverage of anthropogenic origin. Hard substrates dominate.

Physical environment

Salinity range: all; exposure range from sheltered to exposed; depth range aphotic zone.

Mapping advise (habitat delineation, identification, similar types)

All bottoms of which at least 90 % is modified by man. Includes underwater constructions, dredged holes and spoil grounds.

Geographic range

Whole Baltic Sea

Anthropogenic threats

Not relevant