HELCOM RED LIST Biotope Expert Team
aphotic zone bottoms with at least 10- 90 % coverage of hard
(rock/boulders/stone) and 10-90 % soft substrata (e.g. muddy/coarse
sediment/sand). Epibenthic crustacea cover at least 10 % of the seabed, and
more than other perennial attached erect groups. Out of the epibenthic
crustacean, barnacles constitute at least 50 % of the biomass.
is soft or crystalline rock, boulders or stones mixed with mobile substrates
such as sand or coarse substrate. Depth is typically from 20 to 100 meters.
Appears in all wave exposure classes. Salinity >3 psu.
Amphibalanus improvises, Balanus crenatus, Semibalanus balanoides
abundance and biomass of fauna
2.8 Mixed sediment bottoms
2.8.1 Aphotic zone
A5 Sublittoral sediment
A5.4 : Sublittoral mixed sediments
A5.41 : Sublittoral mixed sediment in low or reduced salinity
A5.412 : Baltic mixed sediment bottoms of the aphotic zone
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