Contributors and references


The HELCOM FISH PRO II expert network on coastal fish:

Jens Olsson, Noora Mustamäki, Rahmat Naddafi, Örjan Östman and Lena Bergström, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden

Antti Lappalainen and Outi Heikinheimo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland

Kaj Ådjers, Provincial Government of Åland Islands, Finland

Lauri Saks and Roland Svirgsden, Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Estonia

Laura Briekmane, Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment "BIOR", Latvia

Linas Lozys, Justas Dainys and Egle Jakubaviciute, Nature Research Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Adam Lejk and Szymon Smolinski, National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland

Josianne Støttrup and Elliot John Brown, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark


Collection of data for the Swedish area of Forsmark using Coastal survey nets (Forsmark long time-series) was financed by Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, FORMAS Contract no. 217-2013-1315 2015 and Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Quantitative Fish- & Fisheries ecology in 2016.



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Abundance of key coastal fish species HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of the core indicator report include:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)

Core indicator report – web-based version October 2015 (pdf)

Extended core indicator report – outcome of CORESET II project (pdf) (2015)

2013 Indicator report (pdf)



Baden, S. et al. (2012) Shift in seagrass food web structure over decades is linked to overfishing. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 451: 61–73.

Bergström, U. et al. (2007) Effekter av fredningsområden på fisk och kräftdjur isvenska vatten. (In Swedish). Finfo 2007:2.

Bergström, L. et al. (2016a) Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 169: 74-84.

Bergström, L. et al. (2016b) Coastal fish indicators response to natural and anthropogenic drivers - variability at temporal and different spatial scales Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 183: 62-72.

Böhling, P. et al. (1991) Variations in year-class strength of different perch (Perca fluviatilis) populations in the Baltic Sea with special reference to temperature and pollution. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 1181-1187.

Carl, J., Sparrevohn, C., Nicolajsen, N., Støttrup, J.G. (2008) Substratum selection by juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.): effect of ephemeral filamentous macroalgae. J. Fish Biology 72: 2570-2578.

Edgren, J. (2005) Effects of a no-take reserve in the Baltic Sea on the top predator, northern pike (Esox lucius). Master thesis, Stockholm University.

European Commission (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy. Official Journal of the European Union L164: 19–40.

Eriksson, B.K. et al. (2009) Declines in predatory fish promote bloom-forming macroalgae. Ecological Applications 19: 1975-1988.

Eriksson, B.K. et al. (2011) Effects of altered offshore food webs on coastal ecosystems emphasizes the need for cross-ecosystem management. Ambio 40: 786-797.

Fenberg, P.B. et al. (2012) The science of European marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs. Marine Policy 36(5): 1012-1021.

Florin, A.B. et al. (2013) Effects of a large northern European no‐take zone on flatfish populationsa. Journal of fish biology 83(4): 939-962.

Hansson, S. et al. (2017) Competition for the fish – fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals, and birds. ICES J Mar Sci doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsx207

Heikinheimo, O., Rusanen, P., Korhonen, K., 2016. Estimating the mortality caused by great cormorant predation on fish stocks: pikeperch in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea, as an example. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 73, 84–93.

Heikinheimo, O., Lehtonen, H., 2016. Overestimated effect of cormorant predation on fisheries catches. Comment to article by Salmi, J.A. et al., 2015: Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in the diet of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and effects on catches in the Archipelago Sea, Southwest coast of Finland. Fish. Res. 179, 354–357.

HELCOM (2012) Indicator-based assessment of coastal fish community status in the Baltic Sea 2005-2009. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 131.

HELCOM (2015a) Guidelines for coastal fish monitoring sampling methods of HELCOM.

HELCOM (2015b) Recreational fisheries in the Baltic Sea and availability of data.

Kraufvelin, P. et al. (2018) Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 204: 14-30.

Laikre, L. et al. (2005) Spatial genetic structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea. Mol Ecol 14: 1955–1964.

Lehikoinen, A., Heikinheimo, O., Lehtonen, H. & Rusanen, P. 2017. The role of cormorants, fishing effort and temperature on the catches per unit effort of fisheries in Finnish coastal waters. Fisheries Research 190: 175-192.

Linlokken, A. et al. (2008) Environmental correlates of population variables of perch (Perca fluviatilis) in boreal lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 82(4): 401-408.

Möllman, C. et al. (2009) Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. Global Change Biology 15: 1377–1393.

Nielsen, E., Støttrup, J., Nicolajsen, H., Bregnballe, T. (2008) Undersøgelse af sammenhængen mellem udviklingen af skarvkolonien ved Toftesø og forekomsten af fladfiskeyngel i Ålborg Bugt. (In Danish) DTU Aqua-report 179-08. 82 pp.

Olsson, J. et al. (2011) Genetic population structure of perch, Perca fluviatilis L, along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 79: 122–137.

Olsson, J. et al. (2012) Abiotic drivers of coastal fish community change during four decades in the Baltic Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69: 961-970.

Östman, Ö. et al. (2012) Do cormorant colonies affect local fish communities in the Baltic Sea? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69: 1047-1055.

Östman, Ö. et al. (2013) Estimating competition between wildlife and humans–a case of cormorants and coastal fisheries in the Baltic Sea. Plos One 8: e83763.

Östman, Ö. et al. (2016) Top‐down control as important as nutrient enrichment for eutrophication effects in North Atlantic coastal ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology. 53:1138-1147

Östman, Ö. et al. (2017a) Inferring spatial structure from population genetics and spatial synchrony in population growth of Baltic Sea fishes: implications for management. Fish and Fisheries. doi: 10.1111/faf.12182.

Östman, Ö. et al. (2017b) Temporal development and spatial scale of coastal fish indicators in reference sites in coastal ecosystems: hydroclimate and anthropogenic drivers. Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12719

Saulamo, K., Neuman, E. (2002) Local management of Baltic fish stocks – significance of migrations. Finfo 2002, No. 9.

Sundblad, G. et al. (2014) Nursery habitat availability limits adult stock sizes. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 672-680.

Sundblad, G., Bergström, U. (2014) Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats. Ambio 43: 1020-1028.

Ustup, D. et al. (2016). Diet overlap between juvenile flatfish and the invasive round goby in the central Baltic Sea. Journal of Sea Research 107: 121-129.

Vetemaa, M. et al. (2010) Changes in fish stocks in an Estonian estuary: overfishing by cormorants? ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 1972–1979.


Additional relevant publications

Heikinheimo, O. et al.  (2014) Spawning stock – recruitment relationship in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca, in the Baltic Sea, with temperature as environmental effect. Fisheries Research 155, 1–9. 

Heikinheimo, O. et al. (2016) Estimating the mortality caused by great cormorant predation on fish stocks: pikeperch in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea, as an example. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 73, 84–93.

Kokkonen, E. et al. (2015) Probabilistic maturation reaction norm trends reveal decreased size and age at maturation in an intensively harvested stock of pikeperch Sander lucioperca. Fisheries Research 167,  1–12.

Lappalainen, A., et al. (2016) Length at maturity as a potential indicator of fishing pressure effects on coastal pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) stocks in the northern Baltic Sea. Fisheries Research 174, 47–57.

Lehikoinen, A. et al. (2011) Temporal changes in the diet of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) on the southern coast of Finland – comparison with available fish data. Boreal Environment Research 16 (suppl. B): 61-70.

Lehikoinen, A., et al. (2017) The role of cormorants, fishing effort and temperature on the catches per unit effort of fisheries in Finnish coastal areas. Fisheries Research 190, 175–182. 

Neuman, E. (1974) Temperaturens inverkan på rörelseaktivteter hos fisk i en Östersjövik. (In Swedish) Statens naturvårdsverk, PM 477. 84 pp.

Olsson, J., et al. (2015) Using catch statistics from the small scale coastal Baltic fishery for status assessment of coastal fish.  Aqua reports 2015:13. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Öregrund. 65 pp.

Smoliński, S., Całkiewicz, J. (2015) A fish-based index for assessing the ecological status of Polish transitional and coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101: 497–506.

Thoresson, G. (1996) Guidelines for coastal fish monitoring. Swedish Board of Fisheries, Kustrapport 1996:2.

Voipio, A. (1981) The Baltic Sea. Elsevier, Helsinki.


HELCOM core indicator report,
ISSN 2343-2543