Contributors and references


Volker Dierschke, Ainars Auninš, Fredrik Haas, Leif Nilsson, Owen Rowe

Other recognized contributors: Markus Ahola, Antti Below, Thomas Bregnballe, Julia Bublichenko, Tomasz Chodkiewicz, Mindaugas Dagys, Gennady Grishanov, Christof Herrmann, Gitte Høj Jensen, Joni Kaitaranta, Jan Kieckbusch, Jana Kotzerka, Antti Lappalainen, Łukasz Ławicki, Meelis Leivits, Leho Luigujoe, Nele Markones, Wlodzimierz Meissner, Ian Mitchell, Ib Krag Petersen, Antra Stipniece.


This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Abundance of waterbirds in the breeding season HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Older versions of the report

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)

2013 Core indicator Report



Bradbury, G., Trinder, M., Furness, B., Banks, A.N., Caldow, R.W.G., Hume, D. (2014) Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms. PLOS ONE 9 (9): e106366.

Brenning, U., Nehls, H.W. (2013) Vogelinsel Langenwerder – 100 Jahre Naturschutz. (In German). Ornithol. Rundbr. Meckl.Vorpomm. 47 (Suppl. 2): 1-296.

Ekroos, J., Fox, A.D., Christensen,  T.K., Petersen, I.K., Kilpi, M., Jónsson, J.E., Green, M., Laursen, K., Cervencl, A., de Boer, P., Nilsson, L., Meissner, W., Garthe, S., Öst, M. (2012) Declines amongst breeding Eider Somateria mollissima numbers in the Baltic/Wadden Sea flyway. Ornis Fennica 89: 81-90.

European Commission (1992) Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Off. J. Eur. Communities L 206: 7-50.

European Commission (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Off. J. Eur. Union L 164: 19-40.

European Commission (2010) Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds. Off. J. Eur. Union L20: 7-25.

European Commission (2017) Commission Decision of (EU) 2017/848 of 17 May 2017 laying down criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters and specifications and standardized methods for monitoring and assessment, and repealing Decision 2010/477/EU. May 2017.

Furness, R.W., Wade, H.M., Masden, E.A. (2013) Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms. J. Environ. Manage. 119: 56-66.

HELCOM (2013) Red List of Baltic Sea species in danger of becoming extinct. Baltic Sea Environ, Proc. No. 140.

HELCOM (2014) First Interim Report of the Baltic Sea Pilot Project: Testing New Concepts for Integrated Environmental Monitoring of the Baltic Sea (BALSAM): Information Collected During Cataloguing of Environmental Monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Available at:

HELCOM (2017) Abundance of waterbirds in the breeding season. HELCOM core indicator report. Online.

Herrmann, C., Rintala, J., Lehikoinen, A., Petersen, I.K., Hario, M., Kadin, N., Korpinen, S. (2013) Abundance of waterbirds in the breeding season. HELCOM Core Indicator Report.

ICES (2008) Report of the Workshop on Seabird Ecological Quality Indicator (WKSEQUIN), 8-9 March 2008, Lisbon, Portugal. Available at:

ICES (2013) Report on the Joint ICES/OSPAR Expert Group on Seabirds (WGBIRD), 22-25 Oct 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. Available at:

ICES (2015) Report on the Joint ICES/OSPAR Working Group on Seabirds (JWGBIRD), 17-21 November 2014, Copenhagen, Denmark. Available at:

Masden, E.A., Haydon, D.T., Fox, A.D., Furness, R.W. (2010) Barriers to movement: Modelling energetic costs of avoiding marine wind farms among breeding seabirds. Mar. Poll. Bull. 60: 1085-1091.

OSPAR (2017a) Marine bird abundance. In: Intermediate Assessment 2017. Available at:

OSPAR (2017b) Marine Breeding Success / Failure. In: Intermediate Assessment 2017. Available at:

OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES (2016) Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Seabirds (JWGBIRD), 9-13 November 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark. Available at:

OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES (2017) Report of the OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD), 10-14 October 2016, Thetford, U.K. Available at:

OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES (2018) Report of the OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD), 6-10 November 2017, Riga, Latvia. In prep.

Österblom, H., Casini, M., Olsson, O., Bignert, A. (2006) Fish, seabirds and trophic cascades in the Baltic Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 323: 233-238.

Pannekoek, J., van Strien, A.J. (2001) TRIM 3 manual (TRends and Indices for Monitoring data). Research paper no. 0102. Statistics Netherlands.

Soldaat, L.L., Pannekoek, J., Verweij, R.J.T., van Turnhout, C., van Strien., A.J. (submitted) A Monte Carlo method to account for sampling error in multi-species indicators.

ter Braak C, van Strien A, Meijer R, Verstrael T (1994) Analysis of Monitoring Data With Many Missing Values: Which Method? In: Hagemeijer EJM, Verstrael TJ (eds) Bird numbers 1992 distribution monitoring and ecological aspects. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of IBCC and EOAC. pp 663–673

van Strien, A.J., Pannekoek, J., Gibbons, D. (2001) Indexing European bird population trends using results of national monitoring schemes: a trial of a new method. Bird Study 48: 200-213.

van Strien, A., Pannekoek, J., Hagemeijer, W., Verstrael, T. (2004) A logline Poisson regression method to analyse bird monitoring data. Bird Census News 13: 33-39.


Additional relevant publications

Martin, G., Fammler, H., Veidemane, K., Wijkmark, N., Aunins, A., Hällfors, H., Lappalainen, A. (2015) The MARMONI approach to marine biodiversity indicators. Vol. 1: Development of indicators for assessing the state of marine biodiversity in the Baltic Sea within the LIFE MARMON I project. Vol. 2: List of indicators for assessing marine biodiversity in the Baltic Sea developed by the LIFE MARMONI project. Estonian Marine Institute Report Series No 16.



HELCOM core indicator report
ISSN 2343-2543