Contributors and references


Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen1, Joni Kaitaranta2, Laura Hoikkala2, Jenni Attila1, participants of HELCOM IN-Eutrophication

1 Finnish Environment Institute, SYKE, Finland

2 Secretariat of the Helsinki Commission



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Chlorophyll a HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of the core indicator report include:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)

Core indicator report – web-based 2015 (pdf)



Andersen, J. H., Murray, C., Kaartokallio, H., Axe, P. & Molvær, J. (2010). Confidence rating of eutrophication status classification. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 919–924.

Anonymous (2000). Directive 200/60/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L 327/1.

Anonymous (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 17 June 2008. Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy. Marine Strategy Framework Directive. 22p.

Carstensen J, D.J. Conley, J.H. Andersen, G. Ærtebjerg (2006). Coastal eutrophication and trend reversal: a Danish case study. Limnology & Oceanography 51:398-408.

Fleming-Lehtinen V., M. Laamanen, H. Kuosa, H. Hahti, R.Olsonen (2008) Long-term development of inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll a in the open Northern Baltic Sea area. Ambio 37:86-92.

Fleming-Lehtinen, V., Andersen, J. H., Carstensen, J., Łysiak-Pastuszak, E., Murray, C., Pyhälä, M. & Laamanen, M. (2015). Recent developments in assessment methodology reveal that the Baltic Sea eutrophication problem is expanding. Ecological Indicators 48, 380–388.

HELCOM (2007) Baltic Sea Action Plan. Baltic Sea Environment Protection Commission. 101p.

HELCOM (2013) Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 133EUTRO PRO process (HELCOM 2009)

Schroeder, T., Behnert, I., Schaale, M., Fischer, J., & Doerffer, R. (2007). Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters. Int. J. Remote Sens., 28, 1469–1486, doi:10.1080/01431160600962574, 2007.

Additional relevant publications

Eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea 2007-2011 - A concise thematic assessment  (2014)

Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region (2013)

HELCOM core indicators. Final report of the HELCOM CORESET project (2013)

Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. An integrated thematic assessment of the effects of nutrient enrichment in the Baltic Sea region  (2009)

Development of tools for assessment of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea (2006)

HELCOM core indicator report,

ISSN 2343-2543​