Contributors and references


Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen1, Marina Carstens2, Wera Leujak3, Joachim Küss4, Wojciech Kraśniewski 5, Joni Kaitaranta6, Laura Hoikkala6, HELCOM Expert Network on Eutrophication


1 Finnish Environment Institute, SYKE, Finland
2 State Agency for Environment, Nature Protection and Geology Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
3 German Federal Environment Agency, Germany
4 Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany

5 Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Poland
6 Secretariat of the Helsinki Commission



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Dissolved inorganic phosphorus DIP HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Older versions of the core indicator report are available:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)

DIP concentrations 2007-2011 (pdf)

Nutrient concentrations 2003-2007 - HELCOM Core Indicator Report (pdf)



Andersen, J. H., Murray, C., Kaartokallio, H., Axe, P. & Molvær, J. (2010). Confidence rating of eutrophication status classification. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 919–924.

Anonymous (2000). Directive 200/60/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L 327/1.

Anonymous (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 17 June 2008. Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy. Marine Strategy Framework Directive. 22p.

Carstensen J, D.J. Conley, J.H. Andersen, G. Ærtebjerg (2006). Coastal eutrophication and trend reversal: a Danish case study. Limnology & Oceanography 51:398-408.

Dellwig, O., Leipe, T., März, C., Glockzin, M., Pollehne, F., Schnetger, B., Yakushev, E. V., Böttcher, M. E., and Brumsack, H.-J. (2010). A new particulate Mn–Fe–P-shuttle at the redoxcline of anoxic basins, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 7100-7115.

Fleming-Lehtinen, V., Andersen, J. H., Carstensen, J., Łysiak-Pastuszak, E., Murray, C., Pyhälä, M. & Laamanen, M. (2015). Recent developments in assessment methodology reveal that the Baltic Sea eutrophication problem is expanding. Ecological Indicators 48, 380–388.

HELCOM (2007) Baltic Sea Action Plan. Baltic Sea Environment Protection Commission. 101p.

Nausch, G., R. Feistel, H.U. Lass, K. Nagel, H. Siegel (2008): Hydro-graphisch-chemische Zustandseinschätzung der Ostsee 2006. Marine Science Report, Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, 72, 1-93.

Reissmann J.H., H. Burchard, R.F.E. Hagen, H.U. Lass, V.M.G. Nausch, L. Umlauf, G. Wieczorek (2009) Vertical mixing in the Baltic Sea and consequences for eutrophication – a review. Progress in Oceanography, 82, pp. 47–80


Additional relevant publications

HELCOM: First version of the 'State of the Baltic Sea' report – June 2017, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission – HELCOM, Helsinki, Finland, 197, 2017.

Eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea 2007-2011 - A concise thematic assessment  (2014)

Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region (2013)

HELCOM core indicators. Final report of the HELCOM CORESET project (2013)

Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. An integrated thematic assessment of the effects of nutrient enrichment in the Baltic Sea region  (2009)

Development of tools for assessment of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea (2006)



HELCOM core indicator report,
ISSN 2343-2543