​Contributors a​​nd references​


Sara Danielsson, Elisabeth Nyberg, Jaakko Mannio

HELCOM Expert Network on Hazardous Substances


This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018

Hexabromocyclododecane HBCDD HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of the core indicator report:

HOLAS II component - core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)


Bignert, A., Danielsson, S., Faxneld, S., Ek, C., Nyberg, E. 2017. Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota, 2017, 4:2017, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

Covaci, A., Gerecke, A.C., Law, R.J., Voorspoels, S., Kohler, M., Heeb, N.V., Leslie, H., Allchin, C.R., de Boer, J. (2006) Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the environment and humans: A review. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 3679-3688.

Covaci, A., Roosens, L., Dirtu, A.C., Waegeneers, N., van Overmeire, I., Neels, H., Goeyens, L. (2009) Brominated flame retardants in Belgian home-produced eggs: Levels and contamination sources. Science of the Total Environment 407: 4387-4396.

de Wit, C.A., Alaee, M., Muir, D.C.G. (2006) Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the Arctic. Chemosphere 64: 209-233.

ECB (European Chemicals Bureau) (2008) Risk assessment. Hexabromocyclododecane. CAS-No25637-99-4. EINECS-No.: 247-148-4. Final report May 2008.

ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) (2009) Data on manufacture, import, export, uses and releases of HBCDD as well as information on potential alternatives to its use. Available at: http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13640/tech_rep_hbcdd_en.pdf

ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) (2010) Opinion proposing harmonised classification and labelling at Community level of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). Committee for Risk Assessment, ECHA/RAC/CLH-O-0000001050-94-03/F.

EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2011) Scientific Opinion on Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in Food. European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy.

Eriksson, P., Fischer, C., Wallin, M., Jakobsson, E., Fredriksson, A. (2006) Impaired behavior, learning and memory, in adult mice neonatally exposed to hexabromocyclodecane (HBCDD). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 21: 317–322.

European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Union L 327.

European Commission (2008a) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy (Directive on Environmental Quality Standards). Off. J. Eur. Union L 348.

European Commission (2008b) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Off. J. Eur. Union L 164: 19-40.

European Commission (2010) Commission Decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (2010/477/EU). Off. J. Eur. Union L232: 12-24.

European Commission (2011) Commission Regulation (EU) No 143/2011 of 17 February 2011 amending Annex XIV to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Off. J. Eur. Union L 44.

European Commission (2013) Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Union L 226: 1-17.

European Commission (2014) Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) - Guidance Document No. 32 on Biota Monitoring (the Implementation of EQSbiota) under the Water Framework Directive. Technical Report - 2014 - 083.

Fernie, K.J., Shutt, L.J., Letcher, R.J., Ritchie, I.J., Bird, D.M. (2009) Environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 and HBCD alter eggshell thickness and reproductive success of American kestrels. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 2124–2130.

Fängström, B., Athanassiadis, I., Odsjö, T., Norén, K., Bergman, A. (2008) Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 52: 187-193.

HBCDD EQS dossier (2011) HEXABROMOCYCLODODECANE (HBCDD) [Online]. Supporting background documents 2012 Priority Substances proposal - EQS dossiers: The European Commission. Available at: https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp.

Heeb, N.V., Graf, H., Schweizer, W.B., Lienemann, P. (2010) Thermally-induced transformation of hexabromocyclo dodecanes and isobutoxypenta bromocyclododecanes in flame-proofed polystyrene materials. Chemosphere 80: 701-708.

Li, Y., Zhou, Q., Wang, Y., Xie, X. (2011) Fate of tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in soil and uptake by plants. Chemosphere 82: 204-209.

MacInnis, G., Letcher, R., McKinney, M., Tomy, G., Lebeuf, M., Fång, J., Bergman, Å., Marvin, C. (2010). Investigation of HBCD metabolism in marine mammals from Canada using a hepatic microsomal in vitro bioassay approach and comparison with fild samples. Dioxin San Antonio, TX, USA: Organohalogen compounds.

Marvin, C.H., Tomy, G.T., Armitage, J.M., Arnot, J.A., McCarty, L., Covaci, A., Palace, v. (2011). Hexabromocyclododecane: Current Understanding of Chemistry, Environmental Fate and Toxicology and Implications for Global Management. Environmental Science and Technology.

Peled, M., Scharia, R., Sondack, D. (1995) Thermal rearrangement of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Advances in Organobromine Chemistry Ii 7: 92-99.

Rani M., Shim, W.J., Han, G.M., Jang, M., Song, Y.K., Hong, S.H. (2014) Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene based consumer products: An evidence of unregulated use. Chemosphere 110: 111–119.

Schlabach, M., Mariussen, E., Borgen, A., Dye, C., Enge, E.-K., Steinnes, E., Green, N., Mohn, H. (2002) Kartlegging av bromerte flammehemmere og klorerte parafiner. (In Norwegian). Norsk institutt for luftforskning (NILU), Kjeller, Norway. Rapport 62/2002, 71 pp. Available at: http://www.klif.no/publikasjoner/overvaking/1924/ta1924.pdf

Viberg, H., Johansson, N., Fredriksson, A., Eriksson, J., Marsh, G., Eriksson, P. (2006) Neonatal exposure to higher brominated diphenyl ether, impairs spontaneous behavior and learning and memory functions of adult mice. Toxicological Sciences 92: 211–218.

Viberg, H., Fredriksson, A., Eriksson, P. (2007) Changes in  spontaneous behavior and altered response to nicotine in the adult rat, after neonatal exposure to the brominated flame retardant, decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209). Neurotoxicology 28: 136–142. 


 Additional relevant publications

Bignert, A., Göthberg, A., Jensen, S., Litzén, K., Odsjö, T., Olsson, M., Reutergårdh, L. (1993) The Need for Adequate Biological Sampling in Ecotoxicological Investigations - a Retrospective Study of 20 Years Pollution Monitoring. Science of the Total Environment 128: 121-139.

Bignert, A., Nyberg, E., Asplund, L., Eriksson, U., Wilander, A. (2006) Metals and organic hazardous substances in marine biota, trend and spatial monitoring (Metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, trend- och områdesövervakning). Swedish Museum of Natural History. 122 pp.

Bignert, A., Danielsson, S., Nyberg, E. (2011) Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations in herring muscle and Guillemot egg. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheet 2011.

European Commission (2006) Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off. J. Eur. Union L364.

EU-RAR (2006) European Union Risk assessment on hexabromocyclododecane. Draft October 2006. European Union Risk assessment report 58. 356 pp. European Chemicals Bureau.

Gilbert, R.O. (1987) Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, x. 320 pp.

Grimås, U., Göthberg, A., Notter, M., Olsson, M., Reutergårdh, L. (1985) Fat Amount - a Factor to Consider in Monitoring Studies of Heavy-Metals in Cod Liver. Ambio 14: 175-178.

HELCOM (2010) Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 120B.

Helsel, D.R., Hirsch, R.M. (1992a). Statistical methods in water resources. Studies in environmental science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, USA, xvi. 522 pp.

Helsel, D.R., Hirsch, R.M. (1992b) (page 212) Statistical methods in water resources. Studies in environmental science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, USA.

ICES (1995) Report of the ICES/HELCOM Workshop on Temporal Trend Assessment of Data on Contaminants in Biota from the Baltic Sea, ICES CM 1995/ENV:10, Ref E. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Loftis, J.C., Ward, R.C., Phillips, R.D. (1989) An Evaluation of Trend Detection Techniques for Use in Water Quality Monitoring Programs. In: Developement OoRa (Hrsg.). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 139 pp.

Nicholson, M.D., Fryer, R.J., Larsen, J.R. (1998) Temporal trend monitoring: Robust method for analysing contaminant trend monitoring data. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences 20. ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark. 29 pp.

HELCOM core indicator report
 ISSN: 2343-2543