​​Monitoring requirements

Monitoring methodology

Environmental monitoring of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in biota is currently not coordinated in the HELCOM community, implying that national guidelines are applied in the sampling as documented in the monitoring concepts table in the HELCOM Monitoring Manual under the sub-programme: Contaminants in biota.

So far, there are no technical guidelines related to HBCDD monitoring in biota in the HELCOM Monitoring Manual and there is a need to develop such common monitoring guidelines.


Current monitoring

The monitoring activities relevant to the indicator that are currently carried out by HELCOM Contracting Parties are described in the HELCOM Monitoring Manual in the relevant Monitoring Concept Table.

Sub-programme: Contaminants in biota

Monitoring Concept Table

Presently, only Denmark, Poland and Sweden have permanent monitoring of HBCDD in biota. Germany monitors HBCDD in biota on a project basis, national water monitoring is under development and sediment monitoring is in a planning phase. Finland and Lithuania have results from a few years and are planning to include the substance in their national monitoring programmes. Estonia will include HBCDD analysis (sediment and biota) in coastal areas from 2017. Latvia has only screening data and there is no information from Russia.


Description of optimal monitoring

The performance of existing monitoring should be evaluated in relation to the monitoring objectives, but first there is a need to quantify these objectives. These quantitative objectives need to be specified for each kind of monitoring, e.g. temporal trend-, incident-, geographical (spatial)- and compliance monitoring. For example, for temporal trend monitoring: what statistical power is required, during what time period should a certain trend be possible to detect and with what specified power (with certain one-or two-tailed statistical tests at a specified significant level)? With these definitions at hand it is possible to estimate e.g. required sample sizes and sampling frequencies. It can be shown that for a monitoring period of 12 years or shorter, generally the power to detect trends will decrease substantially if the sampling is carried out every second or every third year compared to annual sampling. For geographical studies the required spatial resolution should be determined. For compliance monitoring, it is imperative to know the distance to target levels (and variance) before sample sizes are estimated.

Time series of HBCDD concentrations in fish are missing or too short to enable evaluation for several sub-basins in the Baltic Sea region. Also biological variables, possible confounding factors (e.g. age, fat content) are often missing (not reported) disabling means to make samples comparable between areas and over time. The geographical resolution is generally too poor to make reliable generalized maps from interpolation of the existing stations using Krieging. No serious attempts to study patterns of variation in fish (coastal- offshore) through variograms have been made that could give guidance to the uncertainty and to the distance between sites required to achieve required confidence in generalized maps.

Some areas of the Baltic Sea have no HBCDD monitoring at present. The eastern parts of the Baltic Sea and the eastern coastline lack reported HBCDD concentrations. Thus increased monitoring is needed to enable both a status and trend evaluation for the entire Baltic Sea.