​​​contributors and references

This pre-core indicator and its threshold values are yet to be commonly agreed in HELCOM.

The indictor is included as a test indicator for the purposes of the mid-2017 'State of the Baltic Sea' report, and the results are to be considered as intermediate.

contributors

Sven Koschinski, Meereszoologie, Nehmten, Germany

Volker Dierschke, Gavia EcoResearch, Winsen (Luhe), Germany

Julia Carlström, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden

Tomasz Linkowski, National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland

Other recognized contributors: HELCOM SEAL EG, Lena Avellan (project manager), Kaj Ådjers, Jochen Bellebaum, Penina Blankett, Stefan Bräger, Mindaugas Dagys, Mikhail Durkin, Wojciech Górski, Gennady Grishanov, Philip Hammond, Ivar Jüssi, Sara Königson, Anti Lappalainen, Finn Larsen, Kjell Larsson, Adam Lejk, Monika Lesz, Linas Lozys, Wlodzimierz Meissner, Leif Nilsson, Jens Olsson, Iwona Pawliczka, Ib Kragh Petersen, Iwona Psuty, Lauri Saks, Josianne Støttrup, Irina S. Trukhanova, M. Vetemaa​


Archive

This version of the core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Number of drowned mammals and waterbirds HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of this indicator are available at:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)


References

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HELCOM (2017) Operational oil spills from ships. HELCOM core indicator report.

Härkönen, T., Stenman, O., Jüssi, M., Jüssi, I., Sagitov, R., Verevkin, M. (2014) Population size and distribution of the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). NAMMCO Scientific Publications 1: 167-180.

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ICES (2013b) Report of the Workshop to Review and Advise on Seabird Bycatch (WKBYCS). ICES CM 2013/ACOM:77. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark. 77 pp.

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Žydelis, R., Bellebaum, J., Österblom, H., Vetemaa, M., Schirmeister, B., Stipniece, A., Dagys, M., van Eerden, M., Garthe, S. (2009) Bycatch in gillnet fisheries – An overlooked threat to waterbird populations. Biological Conservation 142: 1269-1281.

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Additional relevant publications

Bardtrum, J., Nissling, A., Gydemo, R. (2009) Bycatches of birds in waters off Gotland, Central Baltic Sea and potential effects on population levels. A project conducted in cooperation with the Swedish Board of Fisheries and financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Bellebaum, J. (2011) Untersuchung und Bewertung des Beifangs von Seevögeln durch die passive Meeresfischerei in der Ostsee. (In German). BfN-Skr. 295: 1-79.

Bellebaum, J., Schulz, A. (2006) Räumliches und zeitliches Muster der Verluste von See- und Wasservögeln durch die Küstenfischerei in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern und Möglichkeiten zu deren Minderung. (In German). Teilprojekt Auswertung landesweiter Datenquellen (International Beached Birds Survey). Pathologie des LALLF M-V, Ringfunde. Institut für Angewandte Ökologie, Neu Broderstorf.

Dagys, M., Ložys, L., Žydelis, R., Stipniece, A., Minde, A., Vetemaa, M. (2009) Assessing and reducing impact of fishery by-catch on species of community interest. LIFE Nature project "Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Baltic Sea, final report (LIFE 05 NAT/LV/000100).

Dagys, M., Žydelis, R. (2002) Bird bycatch in fishing nets in Lithuanian coastal waters in wintering season 2001-2002. Acta Zoologica Lituanica 12: 276-282.

DCE (2013) Gråsæler trækker mod danske Østersø-kyster. (In Danish). Aarhus Universitet, DCE - Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi. Available at: http://dce.au.dk/aktuelt/nyheder/nyhed/artikel/graasaeler-traekker-mod-danske-oestersoe-kyster/

Degel, H., Krag Petersen, I., Holm, T.E., Kahlert, J. (2010) Fugle som bifangst i garnfiskeriet Estimat af utilsigtet bifangst af havfugle i garnfiskeriet i området omkring Ærø. (In Danish). DTU Aqua-rapport 227–2010.

Finnish Ministry of the Environment (2006) Tumlaren i Finland. Förslag till åtgärder för skydd av tumlaren i Finland. (In Swedish). (The harbour porpoise in Finland. Suggested actions for the protection of the harbour porpoise in Finland). 62 pp. Available at: https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/38776/MF_40sv_2006.pdf?sequence=3

Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (2014) Seal numbers. 2.11.2014. Available at: https://www.luke.fi/en/natural-resources/game-and-hunting/the-seals/

Goodman, S.J. (1998) Patterns of extensive genetic differentiation and variation among European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) revealed using microsatellite DNA polymorphisms. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 104-118.

Gorski, W., Skora, K. E., Pawliczka, I., Koza, R. (2013) Is the current bycatch reporting format useful for the assessment of bycatch risk? Poster presented at 27th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, 8-10 April 2013, Setubal, Portugal.

HELCOM (2009) Reference population levels in Baltic seals. HELCOM SEAL 3/2009, Helsinki, Finland. 31 pp.

HELCOM (2014) BASE project 2012-2014: Preparation of biodiversity and hazardous substances indicators with targets that reflect good environmental status for HELCOM (including the HELCOM CORESET project) and improvement of Russian capacity to participate in operationalization of those indicators. Available at: http://helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/INDICATORS_Russian%20capacity%20to%20participate%20in%20operationalization%20of%20CORESET%20indicators.pdf

Herr, H., Siebert, U., Benke, H. (2009) Stranding numbers and bycatch implications of harbour porpoises along the German Baltic Sea coast. Document AC16/Doc.62 (P). 16th ASCOBANS Advisory Committee Meeting, Brugge, Belgium, 20-24 April 2009. 3 pp.

Herrmann, C. (2012) Robbenmonitoring in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. (In German). Landesamt für Umwelt, Natur und Geologie, Güstrow. 16 pp.

Härkönen, T., Galatius, A., Bräger, S., Karlsson, O., Ahola, M. (2013) Population growth rate, abundance and distribution of marine mammals. HELCOM Core Indicator of Biodiversity. 34 pp.

Lah, L., Trense, D., Benke, H., Berggren, P., Gunnlaugsson, Th., Lockyer, C., Öztürk, A., Pawliczka, I., Roos, A., Siebert, U., Skóra, K., Víkingsson, G., and Tiedemann, R. 2016 Spatially Explicit Analysis of Genome-Wide SNPs Detects Subtle Population Structure in a Mobile Marine Mammal, the Harbor Porpoise. PLOSone 11, e0162792.doi:10.1371.

Kindt-Larsen, L., Dalskov, J., Stage, B., Larsen, F. (2012) Observing incidental harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch by remote electronic monitoring. Endang. Species Res. 19: 75-83.

Kovacs, K., Lowry, L., Härkönen, T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) (2008) Pusa hispida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org

Naturvårdsverket (2008) Provfiske i Östersjöns kustområden – Djupstratifierat provfiske med Nordiska kustöversiktsnät. (In Swedish). Available at: https://www.havochvatten.se/download/18.64f5b3211343cffddb280005491/1348912

Oesterwind, D., Krumme, U., Zimmermann, C. (2012) Pilotstudie zur Dokumentation von Seevogel- und Meeressäugerbeifängen in der Stellnetzfischerei der Fischereigenossenschaft Freest im Gebiet um Rügen – Zwischenbericht 2011. (In German). Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Rostock, Germany. 34 pp.

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Orphanides, C.D., Palka, D. (2013) Analysis of harbor porpoise gillnet bycatch, compliance, and enforcement trends in the US northwestern Atlantic, January 1999 to May 2010. Endang. Species Res. 20: 251-269.

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HELCOM core indicator report,
ISSN 2343-2543