Contributors and references


Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen

Karin Wesslander

Joni Kaitaranta

Laura Hoikkala

Owen Rowe

HELCOM IN-Eutrophication



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Oxygen debt HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)



Andersen, J. H., Murray, C., Kaartokallio, H., Axe, P. & Molvær, J. (2010). Confidence rating of eutrophication status classification. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 919–924.

Anonymous (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. 17 June 2008. Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy. Marine Strategy Framework Directive. 22p.

Anonymous (2000). Directive 200/60/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L 327/1.

Carstensen J, D.J. Conley, J.H. Andersen, G. Ærtebjerg (2006). Coastal eutrophication and trend reversal: a Danish case study. Limnology & Oceanography 51:398-408.

Fleming-Lehtinen, V., Andersen, J. H., Carstensen, J., Łysiak-Pastuszak, E., Murray, C., Pyhälä, M. & Laamanen, M. (2015). Recent developments in assessment methodology reveal that the Baltic Sea eutrophication problem is expanding. Ecological Indicators 48, 380–388.

HELCOM (2002) Environment of the Baltic Sea Area 1994-1998. Baltic Sea Enrivonemtn Proceedings No. 82B.

HELCOM (2007) Baltic Sea Action Plan. Baltic Sea Environment Protection Commission. 101p.

HELCOM (2009). Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. An integrated thematic assessment of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region. Baltic Sea Environmental Proceedings No. 115B. Helsinki Commission, p. 148. 

HELCOM (2013) Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 133

HELCOM (2017) First version of the 'State of the Baltic Sea' report – June 2017 – to be updated in 2018. Available at:

Matthäus W, D. Nehring, R. Feistel, G. Nausch, V. Mohrholz, H.U. Lass, R. Feistel, G. Nausch, N. Wasmund (2008) The inflow of highly saline water into the Baltic Sea. State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952–2005, Wiley, pp. 265–309


Additional relevant publications

Eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea 2007-2011 - A concise thematic assessment  (2014)

Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region (2013)

HELCOM core indicators. Final report of the HELCOM CORESET project (2013)

Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. An integrated thematic assesment of the effects of nutrient enrichment in the Baltic Sea region  (2009)

Development of tools for assessment of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea (2006)


HELCOM core indicator report,
ISSN 2343-2543