Sara Danielsson, Elisabeth Nyberg

HELCOM Expert Network on Hazardous Substances


This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018

Perfluorooctane sulphonate PFOS HELCOM core indicator 2018 (PDF)

Previous versions of the core indicator report:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version March 2018 (pdf) 


Ahrens, L., Bundschuh, M. (2014) Fate and effects of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment: a review. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 33: 1921-1929.

Arias, V.A., Mallavarapu, M., Naidu, R. (2015) Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site. Environ. Monit. Assess. 187: 4111.

Armitage, J.M., Schenker, U., Scheringer, M., Martin, J.W., Macleod, M., Cousins, I.T. (2009) Modeling the global fate and transport of perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and precursor compounds in relation to temporal trends in wildlife exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 9274-9280.

Bignert, A., Danielsson, S., Ek, C., Faxneld, S., Nyberg, E. 2017. Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota, 2017 (2016 years data), 10:2017, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

Carloni, D. (2009) Perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) production and use: past and current evidence. Report prepared for UNIDO. 56 pp.

European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Union L 327.

European Commission (2008a) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy (Directive on Environmental Quality Standards). Off. J. Eur. Union L 348.

European Commission (2008b) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Off. J. Eur. Union L 164: 19-40.

European Commission (2010) Commission Decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (2010/477/EU). Off. J. Eur. Union L232: 12-24.

European Commission (2013) Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Union L 226: 1-17.

European Commission (2014) Guidance Document No. 32 on biota monitoring (the implementation of EXSbiota) under the Water Framework Directive. Technical Report-2014-083.

Falandysz, J., Taniyasu, S., Gulkowska, A., Yamashita, N., Schulte-Oehlmann, U. (2006) Is fish a major source of fluorinated surfactants and repellents in humans living on the Baltic Coast? Environmental Science and Technology 40: 748-751.

Faxneld, S., Danielsson, S., Nyberg, E. (2014) Distribution of PFAS in liver and muscle of herring, perch, cod, eelpout, arctic char and pike from limnic and marine environments in Sweden. Report 9: 2014, History, S.M.o.N., Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Filipovic, M., Berger, U., McLachlan, M.S. (2013) Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea. Environmental science & technology 47: 4088-4095.

FOI (2013) Perfluorerade ämnen i jord, grundvatten och ytvatten. (In Swedish). Berglind, R., Helldén, J., Johansson, N., Liljedahl, B., Sjöström, J. Report FOI-R-3705-SE. 99 pages.

Goeritz, I., Falk, S., Stahl, T., Schäfers, C., Schlechtriem, C., (2013) Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASS) in market-size rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(9): 2078-2088.

HELCOM (2009) Hazardous substances of specific concern to the Baltic Sea – Final report of the HAZARDOUS project. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 119.

HELCOM (2010) Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 120B.

Holmström, K.E., Jarnberg, U., Bignert, A. (2005) Temporal trends of PFOS and PFOA in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, 1968-2003. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 80–84.

Kannan, K., Corsolini, S., Falandysz, J., Oehme, G., Focardi, S., Giesy, J.P. (2002) Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in Marine Mammals, Fishes, and Birds from Coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 3210-3216.

KEMI (2006) Perfluorinated substances and their uses in Sweden. Swedish Chemical Agency (KEMI) Report 7/06. 58 pp.

Koponen J, Airaksinen R, Hallikainen A, Vuorinen PJ., Mannio J, Kiviranta H 2015.  Perfluoroalkyl acids in various edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland. Chemosphere 129: 186-191.

Lilja, K., Norström, K., Remberger, M., Kaj, L., Engelrud, L., Junedahl, E., Viktor T., Brorström-Lundén, E. (2009) The screening of selected hazardous substances in the eastern Baltic marine environment. IVL, Report B1874.

NERI (2007) Danmarks PFAS og organotinforbindelser i punktkilder og det akvatiske miljø. (In Danish). Prepared by Strand, J., Bossi, R., Sortkjær, O., Landkildehus, F., Larsen, M.M. Miljøundersøgelser Rapport 608.

Nordén, M., Berger, U., Engwall, M. (2013) High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20: 8021-8030.

Nordic Council of Ministers (NMR) (2004) Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFAS) in the Nordic Environment. Prepared by Kallenborn, R., Berger, U., Järnberg, U. TemaNord 2004: 552. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (ISBN 92-893-1051-0, ISSN 0908-6692).

OSPAR (2005) OSPAR background document on perfluorooctane sulphonate. 46 pp. OSPAR Commission. Updated in 2006.

Paul, A.G., Jones, K.C., Sweetman, A.J. (2009) A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 386-392.

PFOS EQS dossier (2011) PERFLUOROOCTANE SULPHONATE (PFOS) [Online]. Supporting background documents 2012 Priority Substances proposal - EQS dossiers: The European Commission. Available at: https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp

Poulsen, P., Jensen, A., Wallström, E. (2005) More environmentally friendly alternatives to PFOS-compounds and PFOA. Environmental Project No. 1013. Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 162 pp.

Renner, R. (2001) Growing concern over perfluorinated chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 154A-160A.

SEPA (2006) Perfluoroalkylated acids and related compounds (PFAS) in the Swedish environment. Prepared for Swedish Environment Protection Agency by Järnberg, U., Holmström, K., van Bavel, B., Kärrman, A..

Shan, G., Wei, M., Zhu, L., Liu, Z., Zhang, Y. (2014) Concentration profiles and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in an industrial center with condenced fluorochemical facilities. Science of the total environment 490: 351-359.

Shi, Y., Wang, J., Pan, Y., Cai, Y. (2012) Tissue distribution of perfluorinated compounds in farmed freshwater fish and human exposure by consumption. Environ Toxicol Chem 31: 717–723.

Theobald, N., Gerwinski, W., Caliebe, C., Haarich, M. (2007) Entwicklung und Validierung einer Methode zur Bestimmung von poly-fluorierten organischen Substanzen in Meerwasser, Sedimenten und Biota; Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen dieser Schadstoffe in der Nord- und Ostsee. (In German). Umweltbundesamt Texte 41/07. ISSN 1862–4804. 

Van der Putte, I., Murin, M., Van Velthoven, M., Affourtit, F. (2010) Analysis of the risks arising from the industrial use of Perfuorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate (APFO) and from their use in consumer articles. Evaluation of the risk reduction measures for potential restrictions on the manufacture, placing on the market and use of PFOA and APFO. RPS Advies B.V. 82 pp. + annexes.

Wang, P., Lu, Y., Wang, T., Fu, Y., Zhu, Z., Liu, S., Xie, S., Xiao, Y., Giesy J.P. (2014) Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities. Environmental pollution 190: 115-122.


Additional relevant publications

Berger, U., Glynn, A., Holmström, K.E., Berglund, M., Halldin Ankarberg, E., Törnkvist, A. (2009b) Fish consumption as a source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances in Sweden – Analysis of edible fish from Lake Vättern and the Baltic Sea. Chemosphere 76: 799–804.

SCHER (2011) Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks. Opinion on "Chemicals and the Water Framework Directive: Draft environmental quality standards". DG Health & Consumer Protection, European Commission.

Strand, J., Bossi, R., Sortkjær, O., Landkildehus, F., Larsen, M.M. (2007) PFAS og organotinforbindelser i punktkilder og det akvatiske miljø (PFAS and organotin compounds in point source effluents and in aquatic environment). (In Danish). DMU (NERI) Rapport 608. 49 pp.



HELCOM core indicator report
ISSN 2343-2543