Contributors and references


HELCOM Expert Network on Hazardous Substances



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

PAHs and their metabolites HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of this indicator are available at:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)



Ariese F, Beyer J, Jonsson G, Porte Visa C, Krahn MM (2005) Review of analytical methods for determining metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in fish bile. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences No. 39

Baumard P., Budzinski H., Garrigues P. (1998a). PAHs in Arcahon Bay, France: origin and biomonitoring with caged organisms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36 (8): 577–586.

Baumard, P., H. Budzinski & P. Garrigues (1998b): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17:765–776.

HELCOM (2010). Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 120B.

Kammann U (2007) PAH metabolites in bile fluids of dab (Limanda limanda) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) – spatial distribution and seasonal changes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14(2): 102–108.

Kammann U, Gercken J (2010) PAK-Metaboliten in Aalmuttern (Zoarces viviparus) aus der Wismar-Bucht. Umweltwiss Schadst Forsch. 22(5): 541–546.

Knutzen J., (1995), Effects on marine organisms from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other constituents of waste water from aluminium smelters with examples from Norway. Sci.Total.Environ., 163: 107–122.

Marston Ch.P., Pereira C., Ferguson J., Fischer K., Hedstrom O., Dashwood W-M., Baird W., (2001), Effect of a complex environmental mixture from coal tar containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the tumor initiation, PAH_DNA binding and metabolic activation of carcinogenic PAH in mouse epidermis, Carcinogenesis, 22: 1077–1086.

Neff, J.M. (2004): Bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Effect of contaminants from oil well produced water, Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, Tokio, 241–318 pp.

Pikkarainen, A.-L. (2004): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediments. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 24:667–679.

Sicre, M. A., J.C. Marty & A. Saliot (1987): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean Sea: occurrence and origin. Atmosphere and Environment 21:2247–2259.

Swedish EPA, 2009. Swedish Pollutant Release and Transfer Register [online: 2011-01-15].

Vuorinen PJ, Keinänen M, Vuontisjärvi H, Baršienė J, Broeg K, Förlin L, Gercken J, Kopecka J, Köhler A, Parkkonen J, Pempkowiak J, Schiedek D (2006): Use of biliary PAH metabolites as a biomarker of pollution in fish from the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 53(8–9):523–537

Webster L., Twigg M., Megginson C., Walsham P., Packer G., Moffat C. (2003). Aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments collected from the 110 mile hole and along a transect from 58o58.32'N 1o10.38'W to the inner Moray Firth, Scotland. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 5: 395–403.

Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, R. Vingarzan, R.H. Mitchell, D. Goyette & S. Sylvestre, (2002): PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAHs ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry 33:489–515.



HELCOM core indicator report,
ISSN 2343-2543