Contributors and references


HELCOM Monitoring of Radioactive Substances (MORS) Expert Group

Corresponding authors:

Tamara Zalewska, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, Poland

Marc-Oliver Aust, Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Germany



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Radioactive substances HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of the core indicator:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)

2013 Indicator report (pdf)



European Commission (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Directive). Official Journal of the European Union L 164/19.

European Commission (2010a) Commission Decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (2010/477/EU). Off. J. Eur. Union L232: 12-24.

European Commission (2010b) Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Task Group 9: Contaminants in fish and other seafood. EC JRC Scientific and Technical report.

European Commission (2012) Commission implementing regulation (EU) No 996/2012 of 26 October 2012 imposing special conditions governing the import of feed and food originating in or consigned from Japan following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station and repealing Implementing Regulation (EU) No 284/2012.

Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) (2014) Contribution of food to radiation dose. (In German). Available at:

HELCOM (2009) Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, 1999–2006. HELCOM thematic assessment. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 117. 60 pp.

IAEA (1996) International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Safety Series No. 115. IAEA, Vienna.

IAEA (2005) Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies -WOMARS, Radionuclides Levels in Oceans and Sea, IAEA-TECDOC-1429. ISBN 92-0-114904-2. 125 pp.

International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP (2008) Environmental protection – The concept and use of reference animals and plants. Annals of the ICRP 108: 4-6.

Kanisch, G., Aust, M.-O. (2013) Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish? Biogeosciences 10: 5399–5410.

Nielsen, S.P., Bengston, P., Bojanowski, R., Hagel, P., Herrmann, J., Ilus, E., Jakobson, E., Motiejunas, S., Panteleev, Y., Skujina, A., Suplinska, M. (1999) The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea. Sci. Tot. Environ. 237/238: 133-141.

Zalewska, T., Suplińska, M. (2013) Fish pollution with anthropogenic 137Cs in the southern Baltic Sea. Chemosphere 90: 1760-1766.


 Additional relevant publications

HELCOM (2003) Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1992–1998. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 85. 102 pp.

HELCOM (1995) Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1984–1991. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 61. 182 pp.

HELCOM (1989) Three years observations of the levels of some radionuclides in the Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl Accident. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 31. 155 pp.

Herrmann, J., Kanisch, G. (2010) Concentrations of the artificial radionuclide cesium-137 in Baltic Sea fish and surface waters. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2010.

Ilus, E., Sjöblom, K.L., Ikäheimonen, T.K., Saxén, R., Klemola, S. (1993) Monitoring of radionuclides in the Barltic Sea in 1989–1990. STUK-A103, Helsinki. 35 pp.

Outola, I. (2010) Total amounts of the artificial radionuclide cesium-137 in Baltic Sea sediments. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2010.

Vartti, V.-P. (2010) Liquid discharges of Cs-137, Sr-90 and Co-60 into the Baltic Sea from local nuclear installations. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2010. 



HELCOM core indicator report
ISSN 2343-2543