Contributors and references

This indicator is a HELCOM supplementary indicator and is applicable in assessment units shared by Finland and Sweden.


Brita Sundelin1, Elena Gorokhova1 and Nadezhda Berezina2

1 Stockholm University, ACES

2 Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.



This version of the HELCOM supplementary indicator report was published in July 2018:

Reproductive disorders malformed embryos of amphipods HELCOM supplementary indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of this indicator are available at:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)



Aneer G (1975) Composition of food of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus v. membrans L.) fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis L.) and eel-pout (Zoarces viviparus L.) from deep soft bottom trawling in the Askö - Landsort area during two consecutive years. Meerentutkimuslait. Julk/Havsforskningsinst Skr 239: 146-154

Ankar S, Sigvaldadottir E (1981) On the food composition of Halicryptus spinulosus von Siebold. Ophelia 20: 45-51

Bacela K, Konopacka A (2005) The life history of Pontogammarus robustoides, an alien amphipod species in Polish waters. Journal of Crustacean biology 25:190–195.

Berezina NA  (2007) Food spectra and consumption rates of four amphipod species from the North-West of Russia. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/ Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 168 (4):317–326.

Berezina NA, Petryashev VV, Razinkovas A, Lesutiene J (2011) Alien malacostraca in the eastern Baltic Sea: pathways and consequences. In: Galil BS, Clark PF, Carlton JT (eds), In the Wrong Place - Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology 6: 301–322.

Berezina NA, Gubelit YI, Polyak YM, Sharov AN, Kudryavtseva VA, Lubimtsev VA, Petukhov VA, Shigaeva TD (2017) An integrated approach to the assessment of the eastern Gulf of Finland health: A case study of coastal habitats. Journal of Marine Systems. 171: 159–171.

Davies, I. M. and Vethaak, A. D. 2012. Integrated marine environmental monitoring of chemicals and their effects. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 315. 277 pp.

Elmgren, R., S. Hansson, U. Larsson, B. Sundelin and P. Boehm. (1983). The "Tsesis" oil spill: Acute and long-term impact on the benthos. Mar. Biol. 73, 51-65.

Eriksson, A-K., Sundelin, B., Broman, D., Näf, C (1996). Effects on Monoporeia affinis of HPLC-fractionated extracts of bottom sediments from a pulp mill recipient. In: Environmental fate and effects of pulp and paper mill effluents. Servos et al (eds) p 69-78, St Lucie Press Florida

Eriksson-Wiklund, A-K. B. Sundelin. (2001). Impaired reproduction of the amphipods Monoporeia affinis and Pontoporeia femorata as a result of moderate hypoxia and increased temperature Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 171:165-180.

Eriksson Wiklund AK, Sundelin B (2004). Biomarker sensitivity to temperature and hypoxia- a seven year field study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser274: 209-214.

Eriksson Wiklund A-K, Sundelin B, Broman D. (2005). Toxicity evaluation by using intact sediments and sediment extracts, Mar Poll Bull 50 (6): 660-667

Eriksson Wiklund, Sundelin B, Rosa R (2008). Population decline of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis in Northern Europe, consequence of food shortage and competition. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 367; 81-90.

Gorokhova E, Löf M, Reutgard M, Lindström M, Sundelin B (2013). Exposure to contaminants exacerbates oxidative stress in amphipod Monoporeia affinis subjected to fluctuating hypoxia. Aquatic Toxicology 127:46-53

HELCOM (2014) BASE project 2012-2014: Preparation of biodiversity and hazardous substances indicators with targets that reflect good environmental status for HELCOM (including the HELCOM CORESET project) and improvement of Russian capacity to participate in operationalization of those indicators. 2014 Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission HELCOM. 264 p.

Jacobson, T. Prevodnik A. and Sundelin B (2008). Combined effects of temperature and a pesticide on the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Aquatic Biology 1: 269-276.

Jacobson T, Sundelin B.(2006). Reproduction effects of the endocrine disruptor fenarimol on a Baltic amphipod, Monoporeia affinis. Environ. Tox. Chem 25:1126-1131

Jacobson T, Holmström K, Yang G, Ford AT, Berger U Sundelin B (2010). Perfluoroctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure. Aquatic Toxicology 98 99–106

Jacobson T, Yang G, Ford AT, Sundelin B (2011). Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness. Aquatic Toxicology 101:72-77.

Kuparinen J, K. Leonardsson J. Mattila, and J. Wikner. (1996). Food web structure and function in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea. Ambio:13–21.

Lehtonen K, Sundelin B, Lang T, Strand J (2014). Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea. Ambio 43:69–81.

Lindström M (1992) The migration behaviour of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis (Lindström). Walter and Andrée de Nottbeck foundation scientific reports no 7 Dissertation, University of Helsinki.

Löf M,  Sundelin B, Bandh C, Gorokhova E (2016), Embryo aberrations in the amphipod Monoporeia affinis as indicator of toxic pollutants in sediment, a field evaluation. Ecol Indicator 60:18-30

Panov VE, Berezina NA (2002) Invasion history, biology and impacts of the Baikalian amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebb.). In Leppäkoski E., Olenin S. & Gollasch S. (eds.), Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe. Kluwer Publ., Dordrecht:96–103.

Pöckl M. (1993) Reproductive potential and lifetime potential fecundity of the freshwater amphipods Gammarus fossarum and G. roeseli in Austrian streams and rivers. Freshwater Biology 30: 73–91.

Reutgard M, Eriksson Wiklund A-K, Breitholtz M, Sundelin B. (2014). Embryo development of the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis as atool for monitoring and assessment of biological effects ofcontaminants in the field: A meta-analysis. Ecological indicator 36:483-490.Shiedek, D., Sundelin, B., Readman, J.W., McDonald, R.W. (2007). Interactions between climate change and contaminants, a review. Mar Poll Bull 54: 845-856.

Sparrevik E, Leonardsson K (1995) Effects of large Saduria entomon (Isopoda) on spatial distribution of their small S.entmon and Monoporeia affinis (Amphipoda) prey. Oecologia 101: 177-184

Strode E, Jansons M, Purina I, Balode M, Berezina NA (2017) Sediment quality assessment using survival and embryo malformation tests in amphipod crustaceans: The Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea as case study. Journal of Marine systems. 172: 93–103. Sundelin, B. (1983). Effects of cadmium on Pontoporeia affinis (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in laboratory soft-bottom microcosms. Mar. Biol. 74, 203-212.

Sundelin, B. (1984). Single and combined effects of lead and cadmium on Pontoporeia affinis (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in laboratory soft-bottom microcosms. In: Ecotoxicological testing for the marine environment. G. Persoone, E. Jaspers, and C. Claus (Eds). State Univ. Ghent and Inst. Mar. Scient. Res., Bredene, Belgium. Vol. 2. 588 p.

Sundelin, B. (1988). Effects of sulphate pulp mill effluents on soft-bottom organisms - a microcosm study. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 175-177.

Sundelin, B., A-K. Eriksson (1998). Malformations in embryos of the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis in the Baltic Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 171: 165-180.

Sundelin, B., Ryk, L,  Malmberg, G. (2000) Effects on the sexual maturation of the sediment-living amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Environ. Toxicol 15: 5, 518-526.

Sundelin, B., A-K. Eriksson. (2001). Mobility and Bioavailability of Trace Metals in Sulfidic Coastal Sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 20: (4)  748-756.

Sundelin, Rosa, R., Eriksson Wiklund, A-K (2008a). Reproduction disorders in a benthic amphipod, Monoporeia affinis, an effect of low food quality and availability. Aquatic Biology, 2:179-190.

Sundelin B., Eriksson Wiklund A-K, Ford A (2008b). The use of embryo aberrations in amphipod crustaceans for measuring effects of environmental stressors. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences no 41 (TIMES)



HELCOM core indicator report
ISSN 2343-2543