​​​​​​​​Key Message

For total phosphorus, 12 open sea assessment units were evaluated for the period 2011-2015, of which good status has been achieved only in the Great Belt (total phosphorus concentration below defined threshold value). In Kattegat, Gdansk Bay and Bothnian Bay the concentrations were only slightly above the threshold value.

In the majority of coastal water assessment units, the threshold values set for total phosphorus were failed.


​​Key message figure 1: Status assessment results based on evaluation of the indicator 'Total phosphorus' (annual data). The assessment is carried out using Scale 4 HELCOM assessment units (defined in the HELCOM Monitoring and Assessment Strategy Annex 4). Please note that for some open sea areas threshold values still are under discussion, and that only those coastal areas are shown in which the assessment is based on annual data sets (same as in the open sea areas).


The indicator is applicable in all coastal and open sea areas. The indicator period and method of calculation varies between open sea and coastal areas, and thus the threshold value- or assessment concentrations are not directly comparable between the open sea and coast, nor between all coastal assessment units where nationally binding threshold values may have been set.

The indicator is applicable in the waters of all countries bordering the Baltic Sea, though not operational in all assessment units yet as for some open sea areas threshold values still need to be agreed upon.

Relevance of the core indicator

Eutrophication is caused by excessive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) resulting from various human activities. High concentrations of nutrients and their ratios form the preconditions for huge algal blooms, reduced water clarity and increased oxygen consumption. Long-term nutrient data are key parameters for quantifying the effects of anthropogenic activities and evaluating the success of measures undertaken.

Policy relevance of the core indicator

  BSAP Segment and ObjectivesMSFD Descriptors and Criteria
Primary link

A Baltic Sea unaffected by eutrophication

D5 Human-induced eutrophication

- D5C1 Nutrient concentrations are not at levels that indicate adverse eutrophication effects

Secondary link

A favourable conservation status of Baltic Sea biodiversity

D1 Biological diversity of species and habitats

Theme: Pelagic habitats

-D1C6 The condition of the habitat type, including its biotic and abiotic structure and its functions, is not adversely affected due to anthropogenic pressures.

Theme: Benthic habitats

-D6C5 The extent of adverse effects from anthropo­genic pressures on the condition of the habitat type, including alteration to its biotic and abiotic structure and its functions, does not exceed a specified proportion of the natural extent of the benthic habitat type in the assessment area.

Other relevant legislation: Water Framework Directive, ecological status, QE4 ​ ​


Cite this indicator

HELCOM (2017). Total phosphorus. HELCOM core indicator report. Online. [Date Viewed], [Web link].

ISSN 2343-2543​

Download full indicator report

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)