Contributors and references


Maiju Lehtiniemi, Ulrik Berggreen, Christian Buschbaum, Ann-Britt Florin, Kai Hoppe, Henn Ojaveer, Sergej Olenin, Monika Normant-Saremba, Solvita Strake

recognizing the work of CORESET I:

Manfred Rolke, Monika Michalek, Malin Werner, Maiju Lehtiniemi, Solvita Strake, Alexander Antsulevich & Anastasija Zaiko. Paulina Brzeska, Elena Gorokhova, Bożenna Kaczmaruk and Sergej Olenin.



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Trends in arrival of new non-indigenous species HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Earlier versions of this indicator are available at:

HOLAS II component- Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)



Black, K.D. (ed.), 2001: Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.

EC, 2007: Council Regulation (EC) No 708/2007 of 11 June 2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture. Official Journal of the European Union, 17pp

EC, 2008: Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, 22pp

EU, 2014: Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species.

Galil, B.S., 2007: Loss or gain? Invasive aliens and biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Poll Bull 55:314–322.

Genovesi, P. 2005: Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review. Biological Invasions 7: 127–133.

Gollasch, S. and S. Nehring, 2006: National checklist for aquatic alien species in Germany. Aquatic Invasions 1 (, 245–269

HELCOM, 2007: HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

HELCOM, 2009: Compiled by the HELCOM Secretariat based on the HELCOM list of non-indigenous and cryptogenic species in the Baltic Sea and the chapter "Alien species" (Leppäkoski et al. 2009) in the HELCOM Thematic Assessment of Biodiversity.

HELCOM, 2013a: HELCOM ALIENS 2- Non-native species port survey protocols, target species selection and risk assessment tools for the Baltic Sea. 34 pp.

HELCOM, 2013b: Joint HELCOM/OSPAR Guidelines on the granting of exemptions under the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, Regulation A-4.

HELCOM, 2014a: Annual report on shipping accidents in the Baltic Sea in 2013.

HELCOM, 2014b: HELCOM ALIENS 3 – Tests of the Harmonized Approach to Ballast Water Management Exemptions in the Baltic Sea. 56 pp.

ICES, 2005: ICES CODE of Practice on the Introductions and Tranfers of Marine Organisms 2005, 30pp

ICES, 2013: ICES Advice 2013, Book 1. OSPAR special request on review of the technical specification and application of common indicators under D1, D2, D4, and D6. Available at:

IMO, 2004: International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast water and Sediments, 2004. IMO document BMW/Conf/36, 38pp

Kornis, M.S., Mercado-Silva, N., Vander Zanden, M.J. 2012: Twenty years of invasion: a review of round goby Neogobius melanostomus biology, spread and ecological implications. Journal of Fish Biology, (80), 235–285.

Kotta, J., Pärnoja, M., Katajisto, T., Lehtiniemi, M., Malavin, S.A., Reisalu, G., Panov, V.E. 2013: Is a rapid expansion of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 associated with its niche selection: a case study in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Invasions, 8 (3): 319-332.

Leppäkoski, E. & Olenin, S. 2000: Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions (2), 151–163.

Lockwood, J.L., Hoopes, M.F., Marchetti, M.P., 2007: Invasion Ecology. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA, USA.

Mack, R.N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans, H., Clout, M., Bazzaz, F.A., 2000: Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol. Appl., 10, 689–710.

Minchin, D., Olenin, S., Daunys, D., Panov, V. 2008: Pathways of aquatic alien species in Europe: modes, trends and future spread. – ALARM (GOCE-CT-2003-506675) Project Deliverable 1.3.1.: 18 pp.

Normant-Saremba M., Marszewska L., Kerckhof F., 2017. First record of the North-American amphipod Melita nitida Smith, 1873 in Polish coastal waters. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 46 (1), 108-115.

Ojaveer, H. & Kotta, J., 2014: Ecosystem impacts of the widespread non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea: literature survey evidences major limitations in knowledge. Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-014-2080-5.

Ojaveer, H., Sergej Olenin, Aleksas Narscius, Ann-Britt Florin, Elena Ezhova, Stephan Gollasch, Kathe R. Jensen, Maiju Lehtiniemi, Dan Minchin, Monika Normant-Saremba, Solvita Strake 2016: Dynamics of biological invasions and pathways over time: a case study of a temperate coastal sea. Biological Invasions. 10.1007/s10530-016-1316-x

Olenin, S., Minchin, D., Daunys, D. & Zaiko, A. 2009: Pathways of Aquatic Invasions in Europe. Atlas of Biodiversity, Chapter 6, p. 132.

Paavola, M., Laine, A. O., Helavuori, M., Kraufvelin, P., 2008: Profiling four brackish-water harbours: zoobenthic composition and invasion status. Boreal Environment Research 13:159–175.

Ruiz, G.M., Carlton, J.T., Grosholz, E.D., Hines, A.H. 1997: Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. Integr. Comp. Biol., 37, 621–632.

Sambrook, K., Holt R.H.F., Sharp R, Griffith, K., Roche R.C., Newstead R.G., Wyn G., Jenkin, S.R. 2014. Capacity, capability and cross-border challenges associated with marine eradication programmes in Europe: The attempted eradication of an invasive non-native ascidian, Didemnum vexillum in Wales, United Kingdom. Marine Policy, (48), 51-58.

Sapota, M.R. & Skóra, K.E. 2005: Spread of alien (non-indigenous) fish species Neogobius melanostomus in the Gulf of Gdánsk (south Baltic). Biological Invasions (7), 157–164.

Williams, F., Eschen, R., Harris, A., Djeddour, D., Pratt, C., Shaw, R.S., Varia, S., Lamontagne-Godwin, J., Thomas, S.E., Murphy, S.T., 2010: The economic cost of invasive non-native species on Great Britain. CABI Project No. VM10066.

Wolff, W.J., Reise, K. 2002: Oyster imports as a vector for the introduction of alien species into northern and western European coastal waters. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management (Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S., Olenin, S. eds.), 193-205.

Zaiko, A., Lehtiniemi, M., Narščius, A., Olenin, S. 2011: Assessment of bioinvasion impacts on a regional scale: a comparative approach. Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-010-9928-z]


Additional relevant publications

Buschbaum, C., Karez, R., Lackschewitz, D., Reise, K., 2010: Rapid assessment of neobiota in German coastal waters. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets and development of the HELCOM core set of indicators. St. Petersburg, Russia.

Carlton, J.T. 1985: Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 23: 313–371

Lehtiniemi, M. Ojaveer, H., David, M ., Galil, B ., Gollasch, S ., McKenzie, C ., Minchin, D ., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A ., Olenin, S ., Pederson, J. (2015): Dose of truth—Monitoring marine non-indigenous species to serve legislative requirements. Marine Policy. Volume 54, 26–35



HELCOM core indicator report,

ISSN 2343-2543