Contributors and references


Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen1, Joni Kaitaranta2, Laura Hoikkala2, participants of HELCOM IN-Eutrophication

1 Finnish Environment Institute, SYKE, Finland

2 Secretariat of the Helsinki Commission



This version of the HELCOM core indicator report was published in July 2018:

Water clarity HELCOM core indicator 2018 (pdf)

Older versions of the core indicator report are available:

HOLAS II component - Core indicator report – web-based version July 2017 (pdf)



Andersen, J. H., Murray, C., Kaartokallio, H., Axe, P. & Molvær, J. (2010). Confidence rating of eutrophication status classification. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 919–924.

Fleming-Lehtinen, V., Andersen, J. H., Carstensen, J., Łysiak-Pastuszak, E., Murray, C., Pyhälä, M. & Laamanen, M. (2015). Recent developments in assessment methodology reveal that the Baltic Sea eutrophication problem is expanding. Ecological Indicators 48, 380–388.

Fleming, Vivi & Laamanen, Maria. (2012). Long-term changes in Secchi depth and the role of phytoplankton in explaining light attenuation in the Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. s 102–103. 1–10. 10.1016/j.ecss.2012.02.015.

HELCOM (2013) Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 133

Stedmon, C.A., Markager, S., Kaas, H., 2000. Optical properties and signatures of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Danish coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 51, 267-278.

Ylöstalo, P., Seppälä, J., Kaitala, S., in prep. Spatial and seasonal variations in CDOM absorption and its relation to dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the Baltic Sea.


HELCOM core indicator report,

ISSN 2343-2543​